Prevalence and etiology of hearing impairment in urban area of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India: a cross sectional observational study
Keywords:Hearing loss, Prevalence, Presbyacusis, Sensorineural, Urban
Background: The ear is a marvelously complex and sensitive organ. Disease of the ear have profound effect on the health and quality of life of millions of people around the globe. Data regarding the magnitude of hearing impairment in our country is limited and the literature search revealed that no such studies have been conducted in this region.
Methods: A community based cross sectional observational study was carried out among the 306 individuals in urban area of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Information was obtained by a structured questionnaire, clinical ENT examination and audiological tests after obtaining informed consent.
Results: The study group had 48.4% males and 51.6% females. Maximum 29.4% of individuals were in the age group of 31-45 years. Mean age was 32.22±20.15. The prevalence of hearing impairment was 13.1%. Among individuals with hearing loss, maximum 57.5% were in the age group of ≥60 years. Sensorineural hearing loss was found in 70%, maximum 55% had mild hearing loss. Among majority of individuals with hearing loss cause was presbyacusis 57.5% followed by infectious ear disease 27.5%. Among majority of individuals with hearing loss 37.5% required no further action at the time of study.
Conclusions: In the present study, prevalence of hearing loss was found to be 13.1% and predominantly mild sensorineural or conductive type of hearing loss. An early intervention and quality patient education was necessary for prevention of hearing impairment in majority of cases.
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