DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20172428

Synthesis of a bone like composite material derived from waste pearl oyster shells for potential bone tissue bioengineering applications

Ravi Krishna Brundavanam, Derek Fawcett, Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern

Abstract


Background: Hydroxyapatite is generally considered a viable substitute for bone in a number of medical procedures such as bone repair, bone augmentation and coating metal implants. Unfortunately, hydroxyapatite has poor mechanical properties that make it unsuitable for many load bearing applications.

Methods: In the present work various grades of finely crushed Pinctada maxima (pearl oyster shell) were combined with a nanometer scale hydroxyapatite powder to form novel composite materials. A comparative study was made between the various powder based composites synthesized. The crystalline structure and morphology of the various powder based composites were investigated using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The composite materials were also evaluated and characterized.

Results: Manufactured hydroxyapatite powders were composed of crystalline spherical/granular particles with a mean size of 30 nm. Also produced were hydroxyapatite and finely crushed calcium carbonate from Pinctada maxima (pearl oyster shell) powder mixtures. Hydroxyapatite coatings produced on Pinctada maxima nacre substrates were investigated and their surface characteristics reported.

Conclusions: Pinctada maxima nacre pre-treated with sodium hypo chlorate before hydroxyapatite deposition produced a superior coating and could be used for bone tissue engineering. But further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to validate the biocompatibility and long term stability of this composite coating.


Keywords


Biocompatible, Nano-hydroxyapatite, Oyster shells, Ultrasonic irradiation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Weiner S, Wagner HD. The material bone: structure-mechanical function relations. Ann Rev Mater Sci. 1998;28:271-98.

Hellmich C, Ulm FJ. Average hydroxyapatite concentration is uniform in the extracollagenous ultrasturture of mineralized tissues: evidence at the 1-10µm scale. Biomechan Model Mechanobiol. 2003;2:21-36.

Habraken WJEM, Wolke JGC, Jansen JA. Ceramic composites as matrices and scaffolds for drug delivery in tissue engineering. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007;59:234-48.

Hutmacher DW, Schantz JT, Lam CXF, Tan KC, Lim TC. State of the art and future directions of scaffold-based bone engineering from a biomaterials perspective. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2007;1:245-60.

Bonner M, Ward IM. Hydroxyapatite/polypropylene composite: A novel bone substitute material. J Mater Sci Letters. 2001;20(22):2049-51.

Ono I, Tateshita T, Nakajima T. Evaluation of a high density polyethylene fixing system for hydroxyapatite ceramic implants. Biomaterials. 2000;21:143-51.

Currey JD. Mechanical properties of mother of pearl in tension. Proc R Soc. 1977;196:443-63.

Barthelat F. Nacre from mollusk shells: a model for high-performance structural materials. Bioinsp Biomim. 2010;5(035001):1-8.

Wegst UGK, Ashby MF. The mechanical efficiency of natural materials. Phil Mag. 2004;84:2167-81.

Kamat S, Su X, Ballarini R, Heuer AH. Structural basis for the fracture toughness of the shell of the conch Strombus gigas. Nature. 2000;405:1036-40.

Rousseau M, Lopez E, Stemfle P, Brendie M, Franke L, Guette A, et al. Multi-scale structure of sheet nacre. Biomaterials. 2005;26:6254-62.

Li XD, Chang WC, Chao YJ, Wang RZ, Chang M. Nanoscale structural and mechanical characterization of a natural nanocomposite material: the shell of red abalone. Nano Lett. 2004;4:613-7.

Lamghari M, Almeida MJ, Berland S, Huet H, Laurent A, Milet C, et al. Stimulation of bone marrow cells and bone formation by nacre: in vivo and in vitro studies. Bone. 1999;25:91-4.

Pereira-Mouries L, Almeida MJ, Milet C, Berland S, Lopez E. Bioactivity of nacre water-soluble organic matrix from the bivalve mollusk Pinctada maxima in three mammalian cell types: fibroblasts, bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 2002;132:217-29.

Berland S, Delattre O, Borzeix S, Catonne Y, Lopez E. Nacre/bone interface changes in durable nacre endosseous implants in sheep. Biomaterials. 2005;26:2767-73.

Vecchio KS, Zhang X, Massie JB, Wang M, Kim CW. Conversion of bulk seashells to biocompatible hydroxyapatite for bone implants. Acta Biomaterialia. 2007;3:910-8.

Poinern GEJ, Brundavanam R, Le X, Djordjevic S, Prokic M, Fawcett D. Thermal and ultrasonic influence in the formation of nanometre scale hydroxyapatite bio-ceramic. Int J Nanomed. 2011;6:2083-95.

Poinern GEJ, Brundavanam R, Le X, Nicholls PK, Cake MA, Fawcett D. The synthesis, characterisation and in vivo study of a bioceramic for potential tissue regeneration applications. Sci Rep. 2014;4(6235):1-9.

Klug HP, Alexander LE. X-ray diffraction procedures for poly-crystallite and amorphous materials. 2nd ed. New York, Wiley; 1974.

Barrett CS, Cohen JB, Faber J, Jenkins JR, Leyden DE, Russ JC, et al. Advances in X-ray analysis. New York: Plenum Press; 1986:29.

Han Y, Li S, Wang X, Bauer I, Yin M. Sonochemical preparation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles stabilized by glycosaminoglycans. Ultrasonics Sonochem. 2007;14(3):286-90.

Zhuo ZH, Zhou PL, Yang SP, Yu XB, Yang LZ. Controllable synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals via a dendrimer-assisted hydrothermal process. Mater Res Bull. 2007;42(9):1611-8.

Elliott JC. Structure and chemistry of the apatite’s and other calcium Orthophosphates. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1994.

Eanes ED. Amorphous calcium phosphate. Monogram, Oral Sci. 2001;18:130-47.

Kumta PN, Sfeir C, Lee DH, Olton D, Choi D. Nanostructured calcium phosphates for biomedical applications: novel synthesis and characterization, Acta Biomater. 2005;1:65-83.

Brundavanam RK, Poinern GEJ, Fawcett D. modelling the crystal structure of a 30nm sized particle based hydroxyapatite powder synthesised under the influence of ultrasound irradiation from x-ray powder diffraction data. Am J Mater Sci. 2013;3(4):84-90.

Poinern GEJ, Brundavanam RK, Mondinos N, Jiang ZT. Synthesis and characterisation of nanohydroxyapatite using an ultrasound assisted method. Ultrasonic Sonochem. 2009;16:469-74.

Poinern GEJ, Brundavanam RK, Le X, Djordjevic S, Prokic M, Fawcett D. Thermal and ultrasonic influence in the formation of nanometer scale hydroxyapatite bio-ceramic. Int J Nanomed. 2011;6:2083-95.

Santos MH, Oliveira M, de Freitas PL, Mansur HS, Vasconcelos WL. Synthesis control and characterisation of hydroxyapatite prepared by wet precipitation process. Mater Res. 2004;7:625-30.

An GH, Wang HJ, Kim BH, Jeong YG, Choa YH. Fabrication and characterization of a hydroxyapatite nanopowder by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis with salt-assisted decomposition. Mater Sci Eng A. 2007;821:449-51.

Ramakrishna S, Ramalingam M, Kumar STS, Soboyejo WO. Biomaterials: A nano approach. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2010.

Shi D, Jiang G., Synthesis of hydroxyapatite films on porous Al2O3 substrate for hard tissue prosthetics. Mater Sci Eng. 1998;6:175-82.

Campbell AA. Bioceramics for implant coatings. Mater Today. 2003;6:26-30.

Best SM, Porter AE, Thian ES. Bioceramics: Past, present and for the future. J Euro Ceram Soc. 2008;28:1319-27.

Le X, Poinern GEJ, Ali S, Berry CM, Fawcett D. Engineering a biocompatible scaffold with either micrometre or nanometre scale surface topography for promoting protein adsorption and cellular response. Int J Biomater. 2013;782549:1-16.

Rabiei A, Blalock T, Thomas B, Cuomo J, Yang Y, Ong J. Microstructure, mechanical properties, and biological response to functionally graded HA coatings. Mater Sci Eng C. 2007;27:529-33.