Terrorism catastrophising and hazardous alcohol use among students of a tertiary institution in Jos, Nigeria

Kingsley M. Okonoda, James T. Obindo, Peter O. Onifade, Duwap M. Makput, Bawo O. James


Background: Being a maladaptive means of coping with stress, alcohol abuse may be associated with level of terrorism in a community. Jos has had a number of terrorists’ attacks which have had devastating effects on the city and its environs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of terrorism catastrophizing, hazardous alcohol use as well as the relationship between terrorism catastrophizing and hazardous alcohol use among students of the Plateau State Polytechnic, Jos Campus.

Methods: A cross sectional study of 230 students in the departments of accountancy, business administration and management who completed self-administered questionnaires during one of their classes following a random cluster sampling of departments.

Results: The TCS showed that 43.5% of the participants had terrorism catastrophizing. Pearson correlation showed a high significant positive correlation (p<0.05) across the three dimensions of terrorism catastrophizing: rumination, r=0.807; magnification, r=0.726; and helplessness, r=0.754. However, no significant correlation exists between terrorism catastrophising (rumination, magnification and helplessness), alcohol use disorder, r = -0.016, p = 0.817 (AUDITc), and problem drinking behavior, r= -0.157, p=0.06.

Conclusions: There was no positive correlation between terrorism catastrophizing and hazardous alcohol drinking.


Hazardous drinking, Terrorism, Terrorism catastrophizing

Full Text:



Isyaku A. Terrorism: A New Challenge to Nigeria’s Stability in the 21st Century. Terrorism. 2013;31:12.

US Department of State; Legislative Requirements and Key terms [Cited 2017 Feb 9]. Available from documents/ organization/ 65464.pdf

Sullivan MJ, Bishop SR, Pivik J. The pain catastrophizing scale: development and validation. Psychological assessment. 1995;7(4):524.

Chaves JF, Brown JM. Spontaneous cognitive strategies for the control of clinical pain and stress. Journal of behavioral medicine. 1987;10(3):263-76.

Spanos NP, Radtke-Bodorik HL, Ferguson JD, Jones B. The effects of hypnotic susceptibility, suggestions for analgesia, and the utilization of cognitive strategies on the reduction of pain. Journal of abnormal psychology. 1979;88(3):282.

Eisenman DP, Glik D, Ong M, Zhou Q, Tseng CH, Long A, et al. Terrorism-related fear and avoidance behavior in a multiethnic urban population. American journal of public health. 2009;99(1):168-74.

DuPont RL, Spencer ED, DuPont CM. The anxiety cure: An eight-step program for getting well. John Wiley & Sons. 2003.

Malik F, Khawar R, Iftikhar R, Saeed S, Ilyas R. Development of terrorism impact scale: initial validity and reliability analyses. Development. 2010;8(2):91-118.

Hasin DS, Keyes KM, Hatzenbuehler ML, Aharonovich EA, Alderson D. Alcohol consumption and posttraumatic stress after exposure to terrorism: effects of proximity, loss, and psychiatric history. American journal of public health. 2007;97(12):2268-75.

Vlahov D, Galea S, Resnick H, Ahern J, Boscarino JA, Bucuvalas M, et al. Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks. American journal of epidemiology. 2002;155(11):988-96.

Ayub N, Iqbal S. The fear of terrorism and its psychological impact in Pakistan. Pakistan Business Review. 145.

Nayab R, Kamal A. Terrorism catastrophizing, perceived stress and death anxiety among university students. Pak J Soc Clin Psycho. 2010;8(2):132-44.

Abiola T, Udofia O, Sheikh TL, Yusuf DA. Fear of future terrorism: Associated psychiatric burden. Asi J Psych. 2017.

Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin Ladi, Nigeria [Internet]. 2017 [cited 10 February 2017]. Available from: index.html

Araoye MO. Sample size determination: In: Araoye MO, editor. Research Methodology with Statistics for health and social sciences. Ilorin, Nigeria: Nathadex Publishers. 2003:115-9.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Conducting School Surveys on Drug Abuse: Global Assessment Programme on Drug Abuse, Toolkit Module 3. New York: United Nations. 2003.

Bush K, Kivlahan DR, McDonell MB, Fihn SD. The AUDIT Alcohol Consumption Questions (AUDIT-C). Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:1789-95.

Sinclair SJ, LoCicero A. Fearing future terrorism: Development, validation, and psychometric testing of the Terrorism Catastrophizing Scale (TCS). Traumatology. 2007;13(4):75.

Okonoda KM, Audu MD, Obindo TJ, James BO. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders among medical and surgical in-patients at a teaching hospital in North Central Nigeria. Jos J Med. 2014;8(2):22-8.

Gureje O, Degenhardt L, Olley B, Uwakwe R, Udofia O, Wakil A, et al. A descriptive epidemiology of substance use and substance use disorders in Nigeria during the early 21st century. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2007;91(1):1-9.