Published: 2017-03-28

Sociodemographic profile of pterygium patients attending Government Medical College, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir- a study from North India

Angli Manhas, Dinesh Gupta, Rameshwar S. Manhas, Gaurav S. Manhas


Background: Pterygium is a fibrovascular wing or triangular shaped tissue that develops from the conjunctiva and encroaches on to the cornea.

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at postgraduate department of Ophthalmology of GMC Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India. A total of 90 pterygium patients were selected to analyze various sociodemographic factors especially age, sex, residence, occupation, position etc. on the occurrence of this problem.

Results: In the present study, out of 90 pterygium patients, 40% were in the age of 31-40 years followed by 24.44% in 41-50years, 60% were males whereas 66.67% belong to rural areas. The incidence was found to be maximum among farmers 35.56% followed by labourers 20%. The right eye was involved in 55.56% cases while majority 97.78% cases of pterygium were nasal. Progressive pterygium was found in 80% while 20% reported with atrophic pterygium.

Conclusions: People who work outdoors are subjected to involuntary U.V. B exposure, dust. Workers must be aware of this and they must take appropriate precautions like wearing protective photochromatic glasses, caps etc.


Conjunctiva, Incidence, Occupation, Pterygium

Full Text:



Gris O, Guell JL, Campo ZD. Limbal-conjunctival autograft transplantation for the treatment of recurrent Pterygium. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:270-3.

Coster D. Pterygium-an ophthalmic enigma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1995;79(4):304-5.

Schwartz VJ. Congenital pterygium. JAMA. 1960;174(16):2078-9.

Tseng SCG. Concept and application of limbal stem cells. Eye. 1989;3:141-57.

Rohatgi S. Pterygium: an epidemiological study in India. Int J Health Biomed Res. 2013;1(4):297-318.

Cameron ME. Histology of pterygium: an electron microscopic study. Br J Ophthalmol. 198;67(9): 604-8.

Lu P, Chen XM. Prevalence and risk factors of pterygium. Int J Ophthalmol. 2009;2(1):82-5.

Turkyilmaz K, Oner V, Sevim MS, Kurt A, Sekeryapan B, Durmuş M. Effect of pterygium surgery on tear osmolarity. J Ophthalmol. 2013;2013:1-5.

Balogun MM, Ashaye AO, Ajayi BGK, Osuntokun OO. Tear break-up in eyes with pterygia and pingueculae in Ibadan. WAJM. 2005;24(2):162-6.

Mackenzie FD, Hirst LW, Battistutta D. Risk analysis in the development of pterygia. Ophthalmology1992;99:1056-61.

Ganeshpuri AS, Kamble BS, Patil P, Wadgaonkar SP. A comparative study of tear film stability and secretion in pterygium patients- Diabetic vs. non-diabetic. Int J Health Sci Res. 2014;4(4):86-97.

Mithal RS, Sood AK. Pterygium and dry eye-A clinical correlation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1991;39(1):15-6.

Osahon AI and Edema OT. Pterygium in Benin city, Nigeria A hospital based study. Nigeria J Surg. 1998;5:77-80.

Sharma A, Raj H, Raina AV. Suture less and glue free limbal conjunctiva autografting following pterygium excision. JK Science. 2015;17(2):68-72.

Saleem M, Muhammad L, Islam ZU. Pterygium and dry eye-a clinical study. JPMI. 2004;18(4):558-62.

Khan N, Ahmad M, Baseer A, Kundi NK. To compare the recurrence rate of pterygium excision with bare-sclera, free conjunctival auto graft and amniotic membrane grafts. Pak J Ophthalmol. 2010;26(3):138-42.

Rahman A, Yahya K, Fasih U, Huda WU, Shaikh A. Comparison of Schirmer’s test and tear film breakup time test to detect tear film abnormalities in patients with pterygium. J Pak Med Assoc. 2012;62(11):1214-6.

Krishnaram K. Prevalaence And pattern of pterygium. Internet J Ophthalmol Visual Sci. 2013;10(1):1-4.

El-Sersy TH. Role of pterygium in ocular dryness. J Egypt Ophthalmol Soc. 2014;107(4):205-8.

Prabhakar SK. Safety profile and complications of autologous limbal conjunctival transplantation for primary pterygium. Saudi J Ophthalmol. 2014;28(4):262-67.

Pandey DJ, Mishra VK, Singh YP, Kumar A, Pandey DN. Quantitive and qualitative estimation of tear in pterygium. Indian J Ophthalmol. 1984;32(5):373-7.

McCarty CA, Fu CL, Taylor HR. Epidemiology of Pterygium in Victoria, Australia. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84:289-92.

Asokan R, Venkatasubbu RS, Velumuri L, Lingam V, George R. Prevalence and associated factors for pterygium and pinguecula in a South Indian population. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2012;32(1):39-44.

Maharjan MI, Shreshth E, Gurung B, Karmacharya S. Prevalence of and associated risk factors for pterygium in the high-altitude communities of Upper Mustang, Nepal. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2014;6(11):65-70.

Chavan WM, Kamble MG, Giri PA. Study of prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of pterygium patients attending at a tertiary care teaching hospital of Western Maharashtra, India. Int J Res Med Sci. 2015;3(4):846-8.

Archila EA, Arenas MC. Etiopathology of “pingecuia and pterygium” cornea. Int J Healthcare Biomed Res. 2013;1(4):297-301.