DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20171249
Published: 2017-03-28

Spirituality as an internal protective factor of resilience in children after exposing flood

Delly A. Syukrowardi, Susheewa Wichaikull, Suparpit von Bormann

Abstract


Background: Flooding is recognizing as a risk element that effect many difficulties to children and could impact to their academic performance. In order to buffer such risk condition, some abilities are required to overcome that situation. One of abilities is resilience. The main purpose of this study was to investigate predictor of internal factors (age, illness, gender, emotion, behaviour, spirituality and physical activity) in resilience of elementary school-aged children who exposed the major flood in Serang, Indonesia. The framework used in this study was Resilience Model proposed by Karol Kumpfer.

Methods: A cross-sectional correlation design was employed to accomplishing the study. The total final samples were 162 children who were 9-12 years and who were studied in 3rd to 6th years. All of them are those who were exposed to major flood in Undar Andir, Serang, Indonesia in 2013. The instruments used were self-report questionnaires. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale- 10, The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale, The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and The Physical Activity Questionnaire were utilized in this study after the validity and reliability test. Pearson’s correlation, point biserial and multiple regressions were employed for analysing data.

Results: The results showed that there were significant correlated between behaviour (r = 0.157, p <0.05), spirituality (r = 0.261, p<0.01), physical activity (r = 0.185, p<0.05), and resilience of children. However, age, illness, gender, and emotion were not significantly correlated with resilience. In multiple regressions, spirituality showed as a predictor of resilience (Beta = 0.213, p <0.05) in children after exposing the flood.

Conclusions: In conclusions, flooding is considered as a risk for children. In order to prevent the potential problems due to flood, children need protective factor. This study discovered that high spirituality increases resilience of children. Therefore, spirituality is well thought-out as an internal protective factor of resilience. This study suggested the developing of nursing intervention with religion-activities.

Keywords


Children, Flooding, Protective factor, Resilience, Spirituality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Nesheiwat KM, Brandwein D. Factors related to resilience in preschool and kindergarten students. Child welfare. 2011;90(1):7.

Grotberg EH. A guide to promoting resilience in children: Strengthening the human spirit monograph on the internet. The Hague, Netherlands: Bernard Van Leer Foundation, 1995. Cited 2014 Jan 8. Available from: http://resilnet.uiuc.edu/ library/ grotb95b.html.

Kumpfer KL. Resilience and development: Positive life adaptations electronic book. Kluwer Academic/Pienum Publishers, New York; 1999 (cited 2014 Jan 3). Available from: https://books.google.co.th/books?id=jslncD9_GNkC&pg=PA329&lpg=PA329&dq=Kumpfer,+K.L.+Resilience+and+development:+Positive+life+adaptations.+Kluwer+Academic/Plenum+Publishers,+New+York,+1999

Nintachan P. Resilience and risk-taking behavior among Thai adolescents living in Bangkok, Thailand. Doctoral Desertation, Virginia Commonwealth University. 2007. http://e-resources.pnri.go.id:2057/docview/304705407?pq-origsite=summon

National Disaster Management Agency of Indonesia (BNPB). Fact sheet: Indonesian disaster data and information (updated: 2013 May 20; cited 2014 January 11). Available from: http://dibi.bnpb.go.id/data-bencana/lihat-data/per-halaman=25;halaman=1

Osofsky HJ, Osofsky JD, Kronenberg M, Brennan A, Hansel TC. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after Hurricane Katrina: Predicting the need for mental health services. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2009;79(2):212-20.

World Health Organization. Fact sheet: disaster risk management for health (electronic book). WHO; 2011 (cited 2014 Jan 8). Available from: http://www.who.int/hac/events/drm_fact_sheet_child_health.pdf

Masten AS, Herbers JE, Cutuli JJ, Lafavor TL. Promoting competence and resilience in the school context. Professional School Counseling. 2008;12(2):76-84.

Manning ML. Addressing young adolescents' cognitive development. The High School J. 1994:98-104.

Carroll A, Lord G, Dalton K. 2011. Early Childhood Education Workforce Capacity Project; Resilience. Commonwealth of Australia (cited 2014 Jan 8). Available from: http://www.ecanswteachec.org.au/ RESOURCES/PDF/Resilience.pdf

Grotberg E. 2001. Resilience programs for children in disaster. Ambulatory Child Health. 2001;7(2):75-83.

Connor KM, Davidson JRT. Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety. 2003;(8):71-82.

Underwood LG, Teresi JA. The daily spiritual experience scale: development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. Annals of behavioral medicine: a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. 2002:22-23.

Koskelainen M. The Strengths And Difficulties Questionnaire Among Finnish School-Aged children And Adolescents”. Department of Child Psychiatry, University of Turku, Turku Finland. 2008.

Kowalski KC, Crocker PR, Donen RM. The physical activity questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C) and adolescents (PAQ-A) manual. College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan. 2004:87.

Schelble JL, Franks BA, Miller MD. Emotion dysregulation and academic resilience in maltreated children. Child & Youth Care Forum. 2010;39(4):289-303.

Fivush, R. 1999. Children’s recollections of traumatic and nontraumatic events. Cambridge University Press. Development and Psychopathology. 1999;10(1998):699-716.

Taylor HL. Children’s experiences of flooding in Surakarta, Indonesia (electronic book). Doctoral Dissertation, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand; 2011 (cited 2014 Jan 3). Available from: http://muir.massey.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10179/3266/01_front.pdf?sequence=2

Fraser E, Pakenham K. Resilience in children of parents with mental illness: relations between mental health literacy, social connectedness and coping, and both adjustment and caregiving. Psychology, Health & Medicine. 2009;14(5):573-84.

Lee Ty, Kwong Wm, Cheung Ck, Ungar M, Cheung MYL. Children’s resilience-related beliefs as a predictor of positive child development in the face of adversities: Implications for interventions to enhance children’s quality of life. Soc Indic Res. 2010;95:437-53.