A cross sectional study on the risk factors of gallbladder stone
Keywords:Cross-sectional study, Fatty liver, Gallstones, age, Gender
Background: Gallstone diseases are one of the most common public health problems. Approximately 10%-20% of the national adult populations currently carry gallstones, and gallstone prevalence is rising. The purpose of the study was to find out association of gallstone with fatty liver, gender and age in Lahore, Pakistan.
Methods: Ultrasonographically Hundred patients were scanned for liver type and gall stone. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 17.0. Chi-Square statistics was used to check the association between the variables. The effect of age and gender was also statistically analysed.
Results: One hundred patients were scanned between ages 21-60 years. Out of hundred 76% patients were female and 24% were male. In this study there were no stones in 37% cases and there were stones in 63% cases. Gallbladder stone found associated with age as p-value is found less than 5% level of significance, maximum patients were found in age ranges between 31-35 years, showing that risk of developing gallstone increases by age. Gallstone is gender specific, females are more victims of developing the stone than among males, and those who have fatty liver are more at risk of developing gallstone than those having normal liver.
Conclusions: The study showed that ultrasound (US) is the most sensitive, specific, yet very practical and useful imaging test for the detection of gallstones with a high degree of confidence. Gallstones represent high prevalence disease in adult females more than males and it increases by age where as those who have fatty liver, they are more likely to develop gallstone.
Pak M, Lindseth G. Risk Factors for Cholelithiasis. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2016;39(4):297-309.
Liversupport.com- The Ultimate Resource For Liver Health. www.Liversupport.com.
Middleton WD, Kurtz AB, Hertzberg BS. Ultrasound. 2004;2:28.
Livestrong Foundation. https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Livestrong_Foundation.
Snell RS. Clinical Anatomy. Regions, 9th edn. 2011;199-200.
Gall Stones. www.webmd.com. www.webmd.com/ digestive-disorders/ tc/ gallstones-symptoms
Harlod E, Vishy M. Applied anatomy for students and junior doctors. https://www.amazon.com/ Clinical- Anatomy- Applied- Students Doctors/dp/1118373774.
Zheng Y, Xu M, Li Y, Hruby A, Rimm EB, Hu FB, et al. Gallstones and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Prospective Analysis of 270 000 Men and Women From 3 US Cohorts and Meta-Analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36(9):1997-2003.
Zhang FM. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gallstones: Epidemiological survey in China World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(29):8912-9.
Radmard AR. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences Ann Hepatol. 2015;14(5):702-9.
Kwak MS. Cholecystectomy is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an Asian population World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(20):6287-95.