Published: 2016-12-19

Cancers of the appendix: a case report and review of the literatures

Yumkhaibam Sobita Devi, Himadri Kumar Daru, Dulasiraman Ponnas, Nithin Raj, Gaurav Goswami, Laishram Jaichand Singh, R. K. Tamphasana


Cancers of the appendix are rare. Most of them are found accidentally on appendectomies performed for appendicitis. Majority of the tumors are carcinoid, adenoma, and lymphoma. Adenocarcinomas of appendix constitute about only 0.08% of all cancers and the treatment remains controversial. Here we are reporting a 57 year old man presented with symptoms of appendicitis, diagnosed with mucinious adenocarcinoma of the appendix. The patient was treated with appendectomy. We performed a review of literature on tumors of the appendix. Benign conditions are treated with surgery alone. For lymphomas chemotherapy are required and carcinoid syndrome can be treated with somatostatin analogues.


Appendix cancer, Benign appendix tumors, Malignant appendix tumors

Full Text:



Connor SJ, Hanna GB, Frizelle FA. Retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of appendiceal tumors from 7970 appendectomies. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 1998;41(1):75-80.

McCusker ME, Cot´e TR, Clegg LX, Sobin LH. Primary malignant neoplasms of the appendix: a population based study from the surveillance, epidemiology and endresults program. Cancer. 2002;94(12):3307-12.

Rutledge RH, Alexander JW. Primary Appendiceal Malignancies: Rare but Important. Surgery 1992;111(3):244-50.

L¨auffer JM, Zhang T, Modlin IM. Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Alim Pharmacolo Therap. 1999;13(3):271-87.

Sandor A, Modlin I. A Retrospective Analysis of 1570 Appendiceal Carcinoids. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93(3):422-8.

Gosset A, Masson P. Tumeurs endocinne de l’appendice. La Presse Medicale. 1914;22:237-40.

Maggard MA, O’Connell JB, Ko CY. Updated population based review of carcinoid tumors. Ann Surg. 2004;240(1):117-22.

Kulke MH, Mayer RJ. Carcinoid tumors. N Engl J Med. 1999;340(11):858-68.

Robertson RG, Geiger WJ, Davis NB. Carcinoid tumors. American Family Physician. 2006(74)3:429-34.

Godwin II JD. Carcinoid tumors. An analysis of 2837 cases. Cancer 1975;36(2):560-9.

Modlin IM, Sandor A. An analysis of 8305 cases of carcinoid tumors. Cancer 1997;79(4):813-29.

Pickhardt PJ, Levy AD, Rohrmann Jr CA, Kende AI. Primary neoplasms of the appendix. Radiologic spectrum of disease with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2003;23(3):645-62.

Pickhardt PJ, Levy AD, Rohrmann Jr CA, Kende AI. Primary neoplasms of the appendix. Radiologic spectrum of disease with pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2003;23(5):1340.

Goede AC, Caplin ME, Winslet MC. Carcinoid Tumour of the Appendix. Br J Surg. 2003;90(11):1317-22.

Moertel CG, Dockerty MB, Judd ES. Carcinoid Tumors of Vermiform Appendix. Cancer. 1968;21:270-7.

Cappell MS. The pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of colon cancer and adenomatous polyps. Med Clin North Am. 2005;89(1):1-42.

Patel YC, Srikant CB. Subtype selectivity of peptide analogs for all five cloned human somatostatin receptors. Endocrinology. 1994;135(6):2814-7.

Nilecki SS, Wolff BG, Schlinkert R, Sarr MG. The natural history of surgically treated primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Ann Surg. 1994;219(1):51-7.

Me O’ Donnell, Badger SA, Beattie GC, Carson J, Garstin WI. Malignant neoplasms of the appendix. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007;22:1239-48.

Sugarbaker PH, Kern K, Lack E. Malignant pseudomyxoma peritonei of colonic origin. Natural history and presentation of a curative approach to treatment. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 1987;30(10):772-9.

Hartley JE, Drew PJ, Qureshi A, MacDonald A, Monson JRT. Primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix. J Royal Soc Med. 1996;89(2):111-3.

Ferro M, Anthony PP. Adenocarcinoma of the appendix. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 1985;28(6):457- 9.

Gonz´alez-Moreno S, Sugarbaker PH. Right hemicolectomy does not confer a survival advantage in patients with mucinous carcinoma of the appendix and peritoneal seeding. Br J Surg. 2004;91(3):304-11.

Pahlavan PS, Kanthan R. “Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix. World J Surg Oncol. 2005;3:36.

Collins DC. 71,000 human Appendix specimens. A final report summerising 40 years’ study. Am J Proctol. 1963;14:365-81.

Stewart RJ, Mirakhur M. Primary malignant lymphoma of the appendix. Ulster Med J. 1986;55(2):187-9.

Cheson BD, Leonard JP. Monoclonal antibody therapy for B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(6);613-26.

Coiffier B, Lepage E, Briere J, Herbrecht R, Tilly H, Bouabdallah R, et al. Chop chemotherapy plus rituximab compared with chop alone in elderly patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. N Engl J Med. 2002;346(4):235-42.

McGory ML, Maggard MA, Kang H, O’Connell JB, Ko CY. Malignancies of the appendix: beyond case series reports. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 2005;48(12):2264-71.

Merck C, Kindblom LG. Neurofibromatosis of the appendix in von Recklinhausen’s disease: a report of a case Acta Pathologica Microbiologica Scandinavica A 1975;83:623-7.

Lie KA, Lindboe CF, Kolmannskog SK, Haugen SE, and Grammeltvedt AT. Giant appendix with diffuse ganglioneuromatosis. An unusual presentation of von Recklinghausen’s disease. Case report. Eur J Surg. 1992;158(2):127-8.

Lockhart ME, Smith JK, Canon CL, Morgan DE, Heslin MJ. Appendiceal ganglioneuromas and pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type I. Am J Roentgenol. 2000;175(1):132-4.