Published: 2017-05-27

Diagnosis and staging of lung carcinoma with CT scan and its histopathological correlation

Dhara Shah, Mona Shastri, Dhagash Patel, Nehal Diwanji, Ekta Desai, Mona Chitara, Avani Bhatt


Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Hence, timely diagnosis and accurate staging of the carcinoma is critical for the treatment and prognosis. So, this study was performed to evaluate the role of CT scan in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer.

Methods: This was a prospective and observational study carried out over one and half years at a tertiary care hospital. The patients found to have abnormalities on chest X-ray suggestive of carcinoma were included in the study. Pre and post contrast CT scans were performed. Individual patient biopsies were done for histopathological staging.

Results: Most patients belonged to 41-50 years age group with male preponderance (81.33%). Habit of smoking was prevalent among the lung cancer patients. Almost all masses (92%) showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement on CT. Additionally, there were calcifications, cavitation, hilar enlargement, pleural invasion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and contiguous bone involvement. Adenocarcinoma was the most common (46.66%) form of cancer followed by squamous cell carcinoma (42.66%). For histopathological diagnosis, majority of patients (73.33%) were diagnosed using CT guided biopsy. In the remaining patients, USG guided biopsy or fibreoptic bronchoscopy were performed. The most common lobe affected by bronchogenic carcinoma was right upper lobe. The most common site of metastasis was pleura (22.66%) followed by bone (17.33%). Majority of the patients (41.33%) presented with TNM stage IV.

Conclusions: CT scan as a modality for detection and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma is superior to chest radiograph. CT guided FNAC has a high success rate in evaluation of lung carcinoma.



Bronchogenic carcinoma, CT scan, CT guided biopsy, Histopathology, Tumor staging

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