Published: 2017-05-27

Role of oxidative stress in cataractogenesis

Geeta Bhatia, A. N. Sontakke, Subodhini Abhang


Background: Cataract is a multifactorial disease and is a major cause of blindness in india. Oxidative stress is thought to be a major factor to initiate the process of cataractogenesis. It is today well established fact that oxidative stress participates in both age-related (senile) and diabetes-induced cataract (diabetic). Oxidative damage to the lens most likely arises as a consequence of an impaired antioxidant defence system, due to increased generation of ROS both by age and diabetes. The present study was designed to determine role of oxidative stress in cataractogensis and to compare levels of oxidative stress markers in senile and diabetic cataract patients.

Methods: Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and serum protein carbonyl (PC) were measured as indicator of oxidative stress whereas antioxidant status was assessed by estimating serum Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and dietary antioxidants levels i.e vitamin C and vitamin E in senile and diabetic cataract patients compared with healthy controls.

Results: The result reveal that the serum MDA and PC levels were significantly increased in patients with senile and diabetic cataract whereas serum TAC, vitamin C and Vitamin E were significantly reduced in senile and diabetic patients when compared with normal healthy controls.

Conclusions: From the result, it is concluded that oxidative stress is in the foreground of cataract formation which includes senile and diabetic cataract. Oxidative stress produced in diabetic cataract patients is more as compared to senile cataract patients.



Cataract, MDA, PC, TAC, Vitamin C, Vitamin E

Full Text:



Hejtmacik JF, Kantorow M. Molecular genetics of age related cataract. Exp Eye Res. 2004;79:3-9.

Gupta SK, Trivedi D, Srivastva S, Joshi S, Halder N, Verma SD. Lycopene attenuates oxidative stress induced experimental cataract development; an in vitro and in vivo study. Nutrit. 2003;19:794-9.

Halliwell B. Oxidative nutrition and health. Experimental strategies for optimization of optimization of nutritional antioxidant intake in humans. Free Radic Res. 1996;25:57-74.

Varma SD. Scientific basis for medical therapy of cataract by antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53;335-455.

Vitale S, West S, Hallfrisch J. Plasma antioxidants and risk of cortical and nuclear cataract. Epidemiol. 1993;4:195-203.

Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free radicals in biology and medicine 3rd edition (B Halliwell, J.M.C Gutteridge, Eds), Oxford, UK, Clarendon Pres; 1999:246-250.

Ohira A, Ueda T, Ohishi K, Hiramitsu T, Akeo K, Obara Y. Oxidative stress in ocular disease. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2008;112(1):22-9.

Ganea E, Harding JJ. Glutathion related enzymes and the eye. Curr Eye Res. 2006;31:1-11.

Vinson JA. Oxidative stress in cataracts. Pathophysiol. 2006;13(3);151-62.

Martin-Gallan P, Carrascosa A, Gussinye M, Dominguez C. Biomarkers of diabetes associated oxidative stress and antioxidant status in young diabetic patients with or without subclinical complications. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34:1563-74.

Aslan M, Sabuncu T, Koc, Celik H, Yigit A. Relationship between total oxidant status and severity of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2007;17;734-40.

Aydin A, Orhan H, Sayal A, Ozata M, Sahin G, Isimer A. Oxidative stress and nitricoxide related parameters in type II diabetes mellitus. Clin Bio Chem. 2001;34;65-70.

Jakus V. The role of free radicals and antioxidant systems in diabetic vascular disease. Bratisl Le. Listy. 2000;101;541-51.

Kyselova Z, Stefek M, Bauer V. Pharmacological prevention of diabetic cataract. J Diabetes Complications. 2004;18:129-40.

Nishikawa T, Kukidome D, Sonoda K, Fujisawa K. Impact of mitochondrial ROS production in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Diabet Res Clin Pract. 2007;77 (suppl-1):S161-4.

Buge, Aust. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol. 1978;105;302-10.

Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver CN, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz AG, Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol.1990;186:464-78.

Benzie I, Strain J. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”; The FRAP assay Analy. Biochem. 1996;239:70-6.

Ayekyaw. A simple colorimetric method for ascorbic acid determination in blood plasma. Clinica Chimica Acta. 1978;86:153-7.

Baker H, Frank O. Determination of serum alpha-tocopherol. Gowenlock AH, McMurray JR, Mchauchian DM: Varley’s Practical Clinical Biochemistry; 6th Edition, London; 1968:902-903.

Dalle - Donne I, Rossi R, Colombo R, Giustarihi D, Milazani A. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in human disease. Clin Chem. 2006;52;601-23.

Obara Y. The oxidative stress in the cataract formation. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1995;99:1303-41.

Evans JL, Gold F. Oxidative stress and stress activated signaling pathways a unifying hypothesis of type 2DM. Endocrine Review. 2002;23;599-622.

Vaya J, Aviram M. Nutritional antioxidant mechanism of action, analysis of activities and medical applications. Free Rad Biol Med. 2000;28:141-64.

Gul A, Rahman MA. Antioxidant status in diabetic and non-diabetic senile patient with cataract. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:179.

Ray G, Husain SA. Oxidants, antioxidants and carcinogenesis. Ind J Exp Biol. 2002;40;1213-32.

Bhuyan KC, Bhuyan DK. Superoxide dismutase of the eye. Relative functions of superoxide dismutase and catalase in protecting the ocular lens from oxidative damage. BBA. 1978;542;28-38.

Garg R, Verma M, Mathur SP, Murthy PS. Blood lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in senile cataract. Ind J Clin Biochem. 1996;11(2);182-6.