DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20173011

Nutritional status of underfive children of Mumbai suburban region

Vaishali R. Ghane, Ranjith Kumar

Abstract


 Background: Children below five years of age are an at-risk population due to their susceptibility to malnutrition. They contribute significantly for malnutrition related morbidity and mortality, especially in India. Malnutrition in under-five children belonging to middle or low-income group urban or suburban population is more severe and compounded compared to its rural counterparts. The objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of under-five urban children. To study correlation of determinants like birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, immunization status, maternal education and socioeconomic status with nutritional status of under five children.

Methods: The prospective cross-sectional study included 315 under-five children attending paediatric outpatient department of upcoming new tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Anthropometric assessment for underweight, wasting and stunting was calculated based on age, weight and height measurements.

Results: As per WHO classification, moderate underweight (W/A) was present in 74 (23.49%) and severe underweight in 38 (18.71%). Wasting (W/H) in the form of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was noted in 64 (20.32%) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in 42 (13.33%). Height for age revealed moderate stunting in 37 (11.75%) and severe stunting in 5 (1.59%). The sociodemographic determinants birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, immunization status, maternal education and socioeconomic status had statistically significant association with malnutrition.

Conclusions: Malnutrition is common between age of 12 to 24 months. Underweight was the commonest type of malnutrition followed by wasting and stunting. None of the patient was overweight. Quality antenatal care to reduce incidence of low birth weight, exclusive breast feeding, and appropriate weaning, complete, immunization, improvement in maternal education and socioeconomic status can reduce the incidence of malnutrition.


Keywords


Nutritional status, Stunting, Sociodemographic determinants, Underweight, Under five, Wasting

Full Text:

PDF

References


Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Ezzati M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet. 2008;371:243-60.

State of World Children. A Matter of Magnitude. The Impact of one Economic Crisis on Women and Children in South Asia. UNICEF, Rosa. 2009. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/rosa/Latest_Matter_of_magnitude.pdf. Accessed 8th May 2017.

International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), 2005-2006: India. Mumbai: IIPS. 2007.

Mridula D, Mishra CP, Shrivastava P. Nutritional problems of “At risk” under-fives of urban slums of Varanasi. Indian J Prev. Soc. Med. 2004;41(7):682-96.

Ghosh S, Shah D. Nutritional problems in urban slum children. Indian Paediatr. 2004;41(7):682-96.

WHO Child Growth Standards, Length/height for age, Weight for age, Weight for length, Weight for height, Body mass index, for age, Methods and development. WHO; 2006. Available at: http://www.who.int/ child growth/en. Accessed on 2016 Dec 10.

World Health Organization. Training course on child growth assessment. WHO, Geneva Available at: http://www.who.int/childgrowth/training/module_h_directors_guide.pdf?ua=1. Accessed on 2016 Dec 10.

Mittal A, Singh J, Ahluwalia SK. Effect of maternal factors on nutritional status of 1-5-year-old children in urban slum population. Indian J Community Med. 2007;32:264-7.

Mamulwar MS, Rathod HK, Jethani S, Dhone A, Bakshi T, Lanjewar B, et al. Nutritional status of underfive children in urban slums of Pune. Int J Med Public Health. 2014;4:247-52.

Narkhede V, Likhar S, Pitale S, Durge P. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of under five children in urban slum area. Nat J Community Med. 2011;2:143-8.

Pant B, Vaish A, Jain S, Ahmad S, Varshney AM, Rupesh. Malnutrition among under five children in the peri-urban area of Meerut city: Impact of socio demographic factors. Asian J Pharm Hea Sci. 2013;3(3):769-73.

Goel MK, Mishra R, Gaur D, Das A. Nutrition surveillance in 1-6 years old children in urban slum of a city in Northern India. The Int J of Epi. 2007;5(1).

Sengupta P, Philip N, Benjamin AI. Epidemiological correlates of under-nutrition in under-5 years children in an urban slum of Ludhiana. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues. 2010;33(1):1-9.

Dhatrak PP, Pitale S, Kasturwar NB, Nayse J, Relwani N. Prevalence and Epidemiological Determinants of Malnutrition among Under-Fives in an Urban Slum, Nagpur. Natl J Community Med. 2013;4(1):91-5.

Badami SV, Diwanji S, Vijaykrishna K, Bhandarkar N, Chinagudi S, Herur A, et al. Nutritional Status of below five children in urban slums of Bagalkot. Med Innov. 2012;1:28-34.

Gupta A, Sarker G, Rout AJ, Mondal T, Pal R. Risk Correlates of Diarrhea in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Slums of Bankura, West Bengal. J Glob Infect Dis. 2015;7(1):23-9.

Bhatiya V, Puri S, Swami HM, Gupta M, Singh G. Malnutrition among under-six children in Chandigarh: Scarcity in plenty. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2007;1(6):483-7.

Rayhan I, Khan SH. Factors causing malnutrition in under-five children in Bangladesh. Pakistan J Nutrition. 2006;5(6):558-62.

Saiprasad B, Mahajan H, Kulkarni R. Maternal and Environmental Factors Affecting the Nutritional Status of Children in Mumbai Urban Slum. International J Scientific Res Publications. 2012;2(11):1-9.

Biswas T, Mandal PK, Biswas S. Assessment of health, nutrition and immunization status amongst under- 5 children in migratory brick klin population of periurban Kolkata, India. Sud J of Pub Hea. 2011;6(1):7-13.

Semba RD, de Pee S, Berger SG, Martini E, Ricks MO, Bloem MW. Malnutrition and infectious disease morbidity among children missed by the childhood immunization program in Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007;38(1):120-9.

Baranwal K, Gupta VM, Mishra RN. Profile of morbidity and their effect on nutritional status of underfive children, in urban slum community. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2011;42(2):123-6.

Harishankar, Dwivedi S, Dabral SB, Walia DK. Nutritional status of children under 6 years of age. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2004;35:156-62.

Srivastava A, Bhushan K, Mahmood SE, Shrotriya VP, Mishra SP, Iram S. Nutritional status of under five children in urban slums of Bareilly. Indian J Maternal and Child Health. 2012;14(1):1-8.

Damor RD, Pithadia PR, Lodhiya K, Mehta JP, Yadav SB. A study on assessment of nutritional and immunization status of under-five children in urban slums of Jamnagar city, Gujarat. Healthline, Journal of Indian Association Preventive Social Med. 2013;4(2)35-9.

Algur V, Yadavannavar MC, Patil SS. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Under Five Children in Urban Field Practice Area. Int J Cur Res Rev. 2012;04(22):122-6.