Published: 2017-06-24

The descriptive study of anxiety levels among diabetics: insulin users versus non-insulin users

Hamza Maqsood, Hassan Abdullah Shakeel, Ali Raza Khan, Basit Ali, Syed Asfand Yar Shah


Background: Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of turmoil often accompanied by nervous behaviours such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination. Diabetes is the most metabolically active disease which can influence the psychological state. This study evaluates the anxiety levels among diabetics (Insulin users versus non-insulin users) along with its relation to certain demographic factors like age, sex, education, type of medication and medication compliance.

Methods: Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A) was used to test the anxiety levels in 187 diabetic patients visiting the diabetic clinic and research centre, Nishtar Hospital, Multan and other diabetic clinics in the area. 97 (51.87%) patients of the total sample are males and 90 (48.12%) patients are females.

Results: In this study, 170 (91%) had type 2 diabetes while 17 (9%) suffered from Type 1 Diabetes. 66.66% of the patients in the sample were insulin users while 34.34% were non-insulin users. The overall mean anxiety level in insulin users is 24.55 and in non-insulin users is 23.92.

Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of anxiety levels in insulin users as compared to non-insulin users. Certain symptoms like anxious mood, tension, fears, depressed mood, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal symptoms appeared with mild anxiety levels while other symptoms like insomnia, somatic symptoms, autonomic symptoms, respiratory and genitourinary symptoms appeared with high severity levels. The presence of risk factors for anxiety among patients of diabetes predicts a causal relationship and deserves attention from clinicians.


Anxiety, Comorbidity, Demographic, Prevalence, Type 2 diabetes

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