Comparison in haematological and biochemical changes in normal, acute and chronically castrated West African Dwarf goats


  • Abayomi Kayode Olaifa Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria



Acute, Chronic, Castration, Erythopoiesis, WAD goats



Background: Castration is one of the frequent management practices in large animal husbandry and burdizzo castration has been shown to produce fewer long-term behavioral signs of pain and distress than banding. Castration is known to reduce virility and aggression due to the elimination of testicular androgens.

Methods: This is a comparative study of hematological and biochemical parameters in intact, acute and chronically castrated West African dwarf goats. Twelve adult West African Dwarf bucks weighing between 8 to 14 kg randomly divided into 3 groups of intact, acute and chronic castrated. They were castrated using burdizzo castrator. Hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated by standard laboratory procedures.

Results: There were significant decreases (P<0.05) in the PCV, Hb, RBC, WBC and MCH of acute and chronically castrated goat compared to the control group. The MCV and platelets increased significantly in acute and chronically castrated goat; while the neutrophil and lymphocyte showed no significant changes. The result also showed no significant changes in Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, Cu2+, AST and Creatinine. Mg2+ and ALT significantly increased in chronically castrated goats compared with the acutely castrated goats while Zinc increased significantly (P<0.05) in acute castrated compared with the control goats.

Conclusions: Therefore, from this study, either acute or chronic castration in goats have no detrimental effect on blood electrolytes, but mainly deter the hematopoietic process in the animal owing to testosterone and androgen depletion in castrate animals.


Attardi BJ, Hild SA, Reel JR. Dimethandrolone undecanoate: a new potent orally active androgen with progestational activity. Endocrinol. 2006;147(6):3016-26.

Aydilek N, Aksakal M. Effects of testosterone on lipid peroxidation, lipid profiles and some coagulation parameters in rabbits. J Vet Med Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2005;52(9):436-9.

Gupta V, Bhasin S, Guo W, Singh R, Miki R, Chauhan P, et al. Effects of dihydrotestosterone on differentiation and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and preadipocytes. Molecular cellular endocrinology. 2008;296(1-2):32-40.

Carlson GP. Clinical chemistry tests. In BP Smith (Ed.), Large Animal Internal Medicine. 2nd Ed. Mosby Publisher. USA;1996.

Svoboda M, Eichlerova K, Horak V, Hradecký J. Development of haematological indices in melanoma-bearing Liběchov minipigs. Acta Veterinaria Brno. 2005;74(4):603-11.

Fisher AD, Knight TW, Cosgrove GP, Death AF, Anderson CB, Duganzich DM, et al. Effects of surgical or banding castration on stress responses and behaviour of bulls. Australian veterinary J. 2001;79(4):279-84.

Burciage RL, Step DL, Holland BP, McCurdy MP, Krehbiel CR. Castration in goats: Technique and animal welfare issues. Compend. Cont Educ Pract Veterinarian. 2006;24(9):512-5.

Solomon G, Fletcner I, Gizaw K, Yibrah Y. Effects of castration and supplementary feeding on growth, carcass characteristics, and market value of Adal goats’. In: IAR Proceedings of the Fourth National Livestock Improvement Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 1991;159-164.

Fell LR, Wells R, Shutt DA. Stress in calves castrated surgically or by the application of rubber rings. Australian veterinary J. 1986 ;63(1):16-8.

Chase Jr CC, Larsen RE, Randel RD, Hammond AC, Adams EL. Plasma cortisol and white blood cell responses in different breeds of bulls: a comparison of two methods of castration. J animal science. 1995;73(4):975-80.

Robertson IS, Kent JE, Molony V. Effect of different methods of castration on behaviour and plasma cortisol in calves of three ages. Research in veterinary science. 1994;56(1):8-17.

Vigueras RM, Reyes G, Rojas-Castaneda J, Rojas P, Hernandez R. Testicular torsion and its effects on the spermatogenic cycle in the contralateral testis of the rat. Laboratory animals. 2004;38(3):313-20.

Callewaert PR, Van Kerrebroeck P. New insights into perinatal testicular torsion. Euro J Pediatrics. 2010;169(6):705-12.

Nasr AI, Atta M, Elmahi MI, Mohammed AO. Effect of castration on feedlot performance and some serum metabolites of Nubian male kids. Res Opi Anim Veter Sci. 2011;1(2):98-101.

Earley B, Crowe MA. Effects of ketoprofen alone or in combination with local anesthesia during the castration of bull calves on plasma cortisol, immunological, and inflammatory responses. J Animal Science. 2002;80(4):1044-52.

Fisher AD, Crowe MA, OÓNualláin EÓ, Monaghan ML, Prendiville DJ, O'Kiely P, et al. Effects of suppressing cortisol following castration of bull calves on adrenocorticotropic hormone, in vitro interferon-γ production, leukocytes, acute-phase proteins, growth, and feed intake. J animal science. 1997;75(7):1899-908.

Ahmed SA, Ahmed EA. Behavioral responses of castrated buck kids at different ages by using different methods of castration. J Am Sci. 2011;7(5):200-9.

Olaifa AK, Opara MN. Haematological and Biochemical parameters of West African Dwarf bucks castrated by the Burdizzo method. Vet Arhiv 2011;81:743-50.

Kayode OA, Obot AM. Acute biochemical and Hematological responses to Bur dizzo castration in West African Dwarf bucks. EJMR. 2017;6(1):006-11.

Jain NC. Schalms Veterinary haematology 4th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA. 1986;1168.

Schalm OW, Jain NC, Carrol E. Veterinary Haematology 3rd Ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadephia USA;1975:160-21.

Coles EH. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 4th Ed. W.B. Saunders Co., USA;1989.

Reitman AG, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic transaoxalecetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clinical Pathology. 1957;28:56-63.

Venogopalan A. Castration of bull. In: Essentials of Veterinary Surgery. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. PVT. Ltd, India; 8th Ed. 2000:491.

O’Connor JJ. Castration of the goat. In: Dollar’s Veterinary Surgery. CBS Publishers and Distributors, India. 4th Ed. 2005:381.

Anderson N. Fact Sheet: Castration of Calves. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. 2007;07-029:420-6.

Melches S, Mellema SC, Doherr MG, Wechsler B, Steiner A. Castration of lambs: a welfare comparison of different castration techniques in lambs over 10 weeks of age. Veterinary J. 2007;173:477.

Edwards DA. Early androgen stimulation and aggressive behavior in male and female mice. Physiol Behav. 1996;14:333-8.

Kelani OL, Durotoye LA. Haematological responses of the African giant rat (Cricetomisgambianus) to castration and androgen replacement. Vetreinarski Arhiv. 2002;72(1):39-49.

Hassan AA. Effect of castration on some physiological aspect in rats: Effect of testosterone hormone. J Edu Sci. 2010;23(3):28-39.

Zha C, Moon DG, Park JK. Effect of testosterone undecanoate on hematological profiles, blood lipid and viscosity and plasma testosterone level in castrated rabbits. Can Urol Assoc J. 2013;7(3-4):E221-5.

Gofur MR, Hossain KM, Khaton RM, Hasan MR. Effect of Testosterone on Physio-Biochemical Parameters and Male Accessory Sex Glands of Black Bengal Goat International J Emerging Technology Advanced Engineering. 2014;4(9):456-65

Njidda AA, Shuai’bu AA, Isidahomen CE. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of Sheep in Semi-Arid Environment of Northern Nigeria. Global J Sci Frontier Res. 2104;14(2):49-55.

Hero M, Wickman S, Hanhijärvi R, Siimes MA, Dunkel L. Pubertal up regulation of erythropoiesis in boys is determined primarily by androgen. J Pediatr. 2005;146(2):245-52.

Kim SW, Hwang JH, Cheon JM, Park NS, Park SE, Park SJ, et al. Direct and indirect effects of androgens on hematopoietic cells in vitro. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:409-16.

Bachman E, Travison TG, Basaria S, Davda MN, Guo W, Li M, et al. Testosterone induces erythrocytosis via increased erythropoietin and suppressed hepcidin: evidence for a new erythropoietin/hemoglobin set point. J Gerontol Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;69(6):725-35.

Ferrucci M, Maggio S, Bandinelli S, Basaria S, Lauretani F, Ble A, et al. Low testosterone levels and the risk of anemia in older men and women. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:1380-8.

Dan K. Thrombocytosis in iron deficiency anemia. Intern Med. 2005;44:1025-6.

Aydogan T, Kanbay M, Alici O, Kosar A. Incidence and etiology of thrombocytosis in an adult Turkish population. Platelets. 2006;17:328-31.

Kadikoylu G, Yavasoglu I, Bolaman Z, Senturk T. Platelet parameters in women with iron deficiency anemia. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98:398-402.




How to Cite

Olaifa, A. K. (2018). Comparison in haematological and biochemical changes in normal, acute and chronically castrated West African Dwarf goats. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 6(5), 1623–1627.



Original Research Articles