The negative correlation between testosterone levels and age in healthy Indonesian men residing in the special capital province of Jakarta, Indonesia


  • Mauritius Lambertus Edy Parwanto Department of Medicine, University of Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia



Age, Insulin, Sex hormone binding globulin, Testosterone


Background: Testosterone levels in the circulation determined by production and secretion by Leydig cell in the testes. The action mechanism of testosterone to target cells mediated by sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The levels of testosterone and SHBG in circulation determine men's health. The objective in this study to know the relationship between testosterone, SHBG and insulin with age in healthy Indonesian men residing in the special capital province of Jakarta, Indonesia.

Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study involving 250 healthy Indonesian men residing in the special capital province of Jakarta, Indonesia. Consecutive sampling was done in this study. Testosterone, SHBG and insulin in the serum were measured by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Glucose, triglycerides and albumin were measured using a spectrophotometer. Regression analysis was done to know the correlation between testosterone, SHBG and insulin with age.

Results: The levels of TT, free testosterone (FT), SHBG and percentage of free testosterone (%FT) in healthy Indonesian men were negatively correlated with age (p<0.05). Free testosterone index (FTI) and insulin are not correlated with age (p>0.05). The levels of SHBG, FT, %FT and FTI were correlated positively with TT (p<0.05), but insulin did not correlate with TT (p>0.05). The %FT and FTI were positively correlated with FT (p<0.05), but SHBG and insulin levels did not correlate with FT (p>0.05). SHBG levels are not correlated with insulin (p>0.05). The rate of decline in TT levels in this study 9.8% per decade, while in SHBG levels 8.19% per decade.

Conclusions: The levels of TT, FT, % FT and SHBG in this study were negatively correlated with age, but the FTI and insulin did not correlate with age. The rate of decline in TT levels in this study 9.8% per decade, while in SHBG levels 8.19% per decade.

Author Biography

Mauritius Lambertus Edy Parwanto, Department of Medicine, University of Trisakti, Jakarta, Indonesia



O’Hara L, Curley M, Tedim Ferreira M, Cruickshanks L, Milne L, Smith LB. Pituitary androgen receptor signalling regulates prolactin but not gonadotrophins in the male mouse. PloS ONE 2015;10(3):e0121657.

Gordon A, Aguilar R, Garrido-Gracia JC, Guil-Luna S, Sanchez Cespedes R, Millan Y, et al. Immunoneutralization of inhibin in cycling rat increases follicle-stimulating hormone secretion stimulates the ovary and attenuates progesterone receptor-dependent preovulatory luteinizing hormone secretion. Neuroendocrinol. 2010;91:291-301.

Pitteloud N, Thambundit A, Dwyer AA, Falardeau JL, Plummer L, Caronia LM, et al. Role of seminiferous tubular development in determinating the FSH versus LH responsiveness to GnRH in early sexual maturation. Neuroendocrinol. 2009;90:260-8.

Anderson RA, Baird DT. Male contraception. Endocrine Rev. 2000;23:735-62.

O’Connor AE, De Kretser DM. Inhibins in normal male physiology. Semin Reprod Med. 2004;22:177-85.

Turner TT. Necessity's potion: inorganic ions and small organic molecules in the epididymal lumen. In: Robaire B, Hinton BT, eds. The Epididymis: From Molecules to Clinical Practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2002:131-150.

Grover A, Sairam MR, Smith CE, Hermo L. Structural and functional modifications of sertoli cells in the testis of adult follicle-stimulating hormone receptor knockout mice. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:117-29.

Feldman HA, Longcope C, Derby CA, Johannes CB, Araujo AB, Coviello AD, Bremner WJ, et al. Age trends in the level of serum testosterone and other hormones in middle-aged men: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts male aging study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:589-98.

Fritz KS, McKean AJS, Nelson JC, Wilcox RB. Analog-based free testosterone test results linked to total testosterone concentrations, not free testosterone concentrations. Clin Chem. 2008;54:512-6.

Kaufman JM, Vermeulen A. The decline of androgen levels in elderly men and its clinical and therapeutic implications. Endocrinol Rev. 2005;26:833-76.

Venken K, Callewaert F, Boonen S, Vanderschueren D. Sex hormones, their receptors and bone health. Osteopor Int. 2008;19:1517-25.

Matlock AG, Sheffield-Moore M, Urban RJ. Androgens and skeletal muscle, University of Texas medical branch, department of internal medicine. division of endocrinology and metabolism. 2005;77:555-1060.

Hryb DJ, Nakhla AM, Khan MS, St George J, Levy NC, Romas NA, et al. Sex hormone-binding globulin in the human prostate is locally synthesized and may act as an autocrine/paracrine effector. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26618-22.

Kahn SM, Hryb DJ, Nakhla AM, Romas NA, Rosner W. Beyond carrier proteins: Sex hormone-binding globulin is synthesized in target cells. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:113-20.

Craig MA, Beppler GA, Santos C, Raffa RB. A second (non-genomic) steroid mechanism of action: possible opportunity for novel pharmacotherapy. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2005;30:305-12.

Yeap BB, Almeida OP, Hyde Z, Norman PE, Chubb SAP, Jamrozik K, et al. In men older than 70 years, total testosterone remains stable while free testosterone declines with age. The Health in Men Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;156:585-94.

Venkat K, Desai M, Arora MM, Singh P, Khatkhatay MI. Age-related changes in sex steroid levels influence bone mineral density in healthy Indian men. Osteopor Int. 2009;20:955-62.

Li C, Ford ES, Li B, Giles WH, Liu S. Association of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in men. Diab Care. 2010;33:1618-24.

Lima N, Cavaliere H, Knobel M, Halpern A, Medeiros-Neto G. Decreased androgen levels in massively obese men may be associated with impaired function of the gonadostat. Int J Obes. 2000;24:1433-7.

Suzuki R, Allen NE, Appleby PN, Key TJ, Dossus L, Tjanneland A, et al. Lifestyle factors and serum androgen among 636 middle aged men from seven countries in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Canc Caus Contr. 2009;20:811-21.

Parwanto MLE, Suweino S, Tjahjadi D, Senjaya H, Edy HJ, Pakpahan A. The effect of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) protein polymorphism on the levels of SHBG, testosterone, and insulin in healthy Indonesian men. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2016;5:799-806.

Wu FCW, Tajar A, Pye SR, Silman AJ, Finn JD, O’Neill TW, et al. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European male aging study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:2737-45.

Yeap BB, Chubb SA, Hyde Z, Jamrozik K, Hankey GJ, Flicker L, et al. Lower serum testosterone is independently associated with insulin resistance in non–diabetic older men: the health in men study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:591-8.

Maggio M, Vita FD, Lauretani F, Nouvenne A, Meschi T, Ticinesi A, et al. The Interplay between magnesium and testosterone in modulating physical function in men. Int J Endocrinol. 2014:1-9.

Kapoor D, Aldred H, Clark S, Channer K, Jones TH. Clinical and biochemical assessment of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes: correlations with bioavailable testosterone and visceral adiposity. Diab Care. 2007;30:911-7.

Wang C, Catlin DH, Demers LM, Starcevic B, Swerdloff RS. Measurement of Total serum testosterone in adult men: comparison of current laboratory methods versus liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:534-43.

Glymour MM, Weuve J, Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Robins JM. When is baseline adjustment useful in analyses of change? An example with education and cognitive change. Am J Epid. 2005;162:267-78.

Baisley KJ, Boyce MJ, Bukofzer S, Pradhan RWSJ. Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of three dosage regimens of buccal adhesive testosterone tablets in healthy men suppressed with leuprorelin. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:813-9.

Rosner W, Auchus RJ, Azziz R, Sluss PM, Raff H. Position statement: utility, limitations, and pitfalls in measuring testosterone: an endocrine society position statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:405-13.

Lopez RF, Ferreira SAGJ, Coeli CM, Farias MLF. Low body mass index and declining sex steroid explain most age-related bone loss in Brazilian men. Osteopor Int. 2009;20:1175-82.

Lapauw B, Goemaere S, Zmierczak H, Pottelbergh IV, Mahmoud A, Taes Y, et al. The decline of serum testosterone levels in community-welling men over 70 years of age: descriptive data and predictors of longitudinal changes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;159:459-68.

Slowinska-Lisowska M, Jozkow P, Medras M. Association between physical activity and the androgenic/estrogenic status of men. Physiol Res. 2010;69:757-63.

Gorenoi V. Age-related changes in serum concentrations of SHBG, testosterone, estrogens and IGF-I in men: results from cross-sectional investigation on healthy subjects and calculations from previously reported studies. Dissertation. 2002:1-96.

Emmelot-Vonk MH, Verhaar HJJ, Nakhai Pour HRN, Aleman A, Lock TMTW, Ruud Bosch JLH, et al. Effect of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, cognition, and other parameters in older men. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2008;299:39-52.

Liu PY, Beilin J, Meier C, Nguyen TV, Center JR, Leedman PJ, et al. Age-related changes in serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin in Australian men: longitudinal analyses of two geographically separate regional cohorts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3599-603.

Mohan SS, Knuiman MW, Divitini ML, James AL, Musk AW, Handelsman DJ, et al. Higher serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, but not oestradiol, are independently associated with favourable indices of lung function in community-dwelling men. Clin Endocrinol. 2015;(83)2:268-76.

Bhasin S, Zhang A, Coviello A, Jasuja R, Ulloor J, Singh R, et al. The impact of assay quality and reference ranges on clinical decision making in the diagnosis of androgen disorders. Steroids, 2008;73:1311-7.

Velayoudom-Cephise F, Foucan L, Larifla L, Chingan V, Bangou J, et al. Relationship between Testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin concentrations with cardiometabolic parameters and macrovascular disease in Afro-Caribbean men with type 2 diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Synd. 2015;4:162.

Suweino, Parwanto MLE, Tjahjadi D. Low testosterone level increases fasting blood glucose level in adult males. Univ Med. 2012;31(3):200-7.

Kasper JS, Liu Y, Pollak MN, Rifai N, Giovannucci E. Hormonal profile of diabetic men and the potential link to prostate cancer. Canc Caus Contr. 2008;19:703-10.

Tylińska M, Broncel M. The relationship between testosterone deficiency and metabolic syndrome in obese men. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2013;34(199):24-8.

Belanger A, Locong A, Noel C, Cusan L, Dupont A, Prerost J, Caron S, et al. Influence of diet on plasma steroid and sex plasma binding globulin levels in adult men. J Steroid Biochem. 1989;32:829-33.

Parwanto MLE, Indrawati Y, Setiawan H. Isoflavone supplementation reduced serum sex hormone binding globulin concentration in postmenopausal women. Univ Med. 2012;31(1):52-62.

Ly PL, Handelsman DJ. Empirical estimation of free testosterone from testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin immunoassays. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;152:471-8.

Ronde DW, Van der Schouw YT, Pols HAP, Gooren LJG, Muller M, Grobbee DE, et al. Calculation of bioavailable and free testosterone in men: A comparison of 5 published algorithms. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1777-84.

Ly LP, Sartorius G, Hull L, Leung A, Swerdloff RS, Wang C, et al. Accuracy of calculated free testosterone formulae in men. Clin Endocrinol. 2010;73:382-8.

Mack R, Skurnick B, Sterling-Jean Y, Pedra-Nobre M, Bigg D. Fasting insulin levels as a measure of insulin resistance in American blacks. J Appl Resch. 2004;4:90-4.

Oh JY, Barrett-Connor E, Wedick NM, Wingard DL. Endogenous sex hormones and the development of type 2 diabetes in older men and women: the rancho Barnardo study. Diab Care. 2002;25:55-60.

Tsai EC, Matsumoto AM, Fujimoto WY, Boyko EJ. Association of bioavailable, free and total testosterone with insulin resistance, influence of sex hormone-binding globulin and body fat. Diab Care. 2004;27:861-8.

Pitteloud N, Mootha VK, Dwyer AA, Hardin M, Lee H, Eriksson KF, et al. Relationship Between testosterone levels, insulin sensitivity, and mitochondrial function in men. Diab Care. 2005;28:1636-42.

Kapoor D, Goodwin E, Channer KS, Jones TH. Testosterone replacement therapy improves insulin resistance, glycaemic control, visceral adiposity and hypercholesterolaemia in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2006;154:899-906.

Refaie MR, Sayed-Ahmed NA, Bakr AM, Abdel Aziz MY, Abdel-Gawad SS, El Kannishi MH. Aging is an inevitable risk factor for insulin resistance. JTU Med Scz. 2006;1(1):30-41.




How to Cite

Parwanto, M. L. E. (2017). The negative correlation between testosterone levels and age in healthy Indonesian men residing in the special capital province of Jakarta, Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 5(8), 3431–3437.



Original Research Articles