DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20173537

Evaluation of Integrated Childhood Development Services (ICDS) program implementation in an urban slum of Delhi, India

Jitendra Kumar Meena, Anjana Verma, Rajesh Kumar

Abstract


Background: The Integrated Childhood Development Services (ICDS) scheme is India’s foremost program imparting comprehensive and cost-effective services to meet the multi-dimensional needs of children. Following a populist approach, the program has now increased its umbrella coverage to reproductive age, pregnant and lactating women. The impact of such development and existing program performance remain debatable due to the paucity of evaluation research.

Methods: A mix-methods descriptive case study was done using adapted ICDS monitoring tool in a pre-identified slum. The slum was purposely chosen for its intensive habitation of the poor and marginalized population. Primary data were collected through personalized interviews with program staff, health functionaries, and community representatives. Secondary data were collected from records available at Anganwadi centre (AWC). The data were triangulated and analyzed with results being expressed in narrative, simple proportions and percentages.

Results: The mean coverage of ICDS services was 58.3%. Maximum coverage recorded for Supplementary Nutrition (SN) and minimal for Nutrition and Health Education (NHE). SN, immunization, Pre-school education (PSE) and growth monitoring (0-3 years) were regularly held. Maternal and child health services were unsatisfactory. Poor community perception reported for AWC and ICDS services with exception of SN.

Conclusions: Present case study unveils poor infrastructure, coverage and community participation for ICDS services. Immunisation and referral networking is often dysfunctional reflecting the need for enhanced intersectoral cooperation. Adapted tools could serve as an effective strategy for evaluating and facilitating need-based improvements.


Keywords


Slum, Anganwadi, Delhi, Child development, Evaluation, ICDS, NIPCCD

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gangbar J, Rajan P, Gayithri K. Integrated child development services in india- a sub-national review. Institute for Social and Economic Change, India Working Paper. 2014;318. Available at: http://www.isec.ac.in/WP%20318%20-%20K%20Gayithri_Final.pdf

PEO (programme evaluation organization, planning commission, government of India) Report No.218, Evaluation study on integrated child development services project (ICDS)-2011. Available at http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/peoreport/peoevalu/peo_icds_v1.pdf.

Thakare M, Kuril BM, Doible MK, Goel NK. A study of functioning of Anganwadi centers of urban ICDS block of Aurangabad city. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2011;42:253-8.

Singh D, Gaur KL, Sharma MP. Performance evaluation of Anganwadi workers of Jaipur zone, Rajasthan. Int J Engineering Sci Invention. 2013;2(4):28-34.

Chudasama RK, Kadri AM, Verma PB, Patel UV, Joshi N, Zalavadiya D, et al. Evaluation of integrated child development services program in Gujarat, India. Indian Pediatrics. 2014;51:707-11.

Monitoring and supervision of ICDS scheme: Chapter 2 (pp 1-13). New Delhi: national institute of public cooperation and child development, government of India. guidelines for monitoring and supervision of the scheme, central monitoring unit (ICDS). Available at http://nipccd.nic.in/gdlns_frame.htm.

Pratinidhi AK, Thambe MP, Card SG. Diet survey of ICDS children in Pune city. Indian J Community Med. 1998;23(4):152-5.

Bashir A, Unjum B, Ganie ZA, Lone A. Evaluation study of integrated child development scheme (ICDS) in district Bandipora of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Int Res J Social Sci. 2014;3(2):34-6.

Sahoo J, Mahajan PB, Paul S, Bhatia V, Patra AK, Hembram DK. Operational assessment of ICDS scheme at grass root level in a rural area of eastern India: Time to introspect. J Clin Diagnostic Res. 2016;10(12):28.

Nayak N, Saxena NC. Implementation of ICDS in Bihar and Jharkhand. Economic Political Weekly. 2006:3680-4.

Rao MG, Choudhury M, Anand M. Resource devolution from the centre to states: enhancing the revenue capacity of states for implementation of essential health interventions. Government of India. 2005:297-318.

Gragnolati M, Bredenkamp C, Gupta MD, Lee YK, Shekar M. ICDS and persistent undernutrition: Strategies to enhance the impact. Economic Political Weekly. 2006:1193-201.

Davey A, Davey S, Datta U. Role of reorientation training in enhancement of the knowledge regarding growth monitoring activities by Anganwadi workers in urban slums of Delhi. Indian J Community Med. 2008;33(1):47-9.