DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20164534

Combined endoscopic intervention (ligation+sclerotherapy) compared with TIPS for prevention of bleeding from gastro-esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

Utkirbek Matkuliev

Abstract


Background: Liver cirrhosis (LC) and portal hypertension (PH) is one of the most serious problems of modern surgical hepatology. The most common complication of liver cirrhosis is bleeding from varicose veins of esophagus and stomach. Today experts have several ways to prevent rebleeding from varices: pharmacotherapy, endoscopic intervention, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), a surgical portocaval bypass. Purpose of this study was to compare effectiveness of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) and combined endoscopic therapy the management of bleeding in cirrhotic patients.

Methods: We observed 96 consecutive patients with portal hypertension who were treated in 2nd clinic of Tashkent Medical Academy (2014-2015). Bleeding was in history of 17 (17.7%) patients. The duration of the bleeding averaged 9.7±4.3 hours. Ascites was observed in 54.5 % of patients. Patients were divided two major groups. First group included 72 patients who was performed endoscopic intervention. Second group consisted of 24 patients who underwent TIPS in emergency cases.

Results: Seventy-two patients were assigned to variceal ligation and Sclerotherapy, other 24 patients to TIPS. In the ligation combined Sclerotherapy group, a second treatment was performed 8–10 days after the initial endoscopy. Deterioration of portal gastropathy was observed in 9 (9.4%) cases after EL and 24 (25.0%) after ES (p <0.05). The mean portal system pressure prior to TIPS placement was 53.67±4.21 mm Hg, which decreased to 25.10±4.06 mmHg after the first shunt tract was established (P <0.001). The mean portal system pressure prior to the second TIPS was 43.68±3.98 mm Hg and decreased to 25.14±4.67 mm Hg after the procedures (P <0.001).

Conclusions: TIPS can become dysfunctional if stenosis develops in the shunt or the hepatic vein above the shunt. Screening allows detection of stenosis before portal hypertensive–related complications recur. Revision of stenotic shunts can be easily accomplished in most cases. Techniques for screening and revision will be discussed. This is one of the most effective methods to control patients with liver cirrhosis.


Keywords


Bleeding, Endoscopic ligation, Liver cirrhosis, Portal hypertension, Sclerotherapy, TIPS, Varicose veins

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ferguson JW, Hayes PC. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the prevention of rebleeding in oesophageal varices. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;18(11):1167-71.

Khuroo MS, Khuroo NS, Farahat KL, Khuroo YS, Sofi AA, Dahab ST. Meta-analysis: endoscopic variceal ligation for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005;21(4):347-61.

Krag A, Borup T, Møller S, Bendtsen F. Efficacy and safety of terlipressin in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding or hepatorenal syndrome. Adv Ther. 2008;25(11):1105-40.

Maleux G, Verslype C, Heye S, Wilms G, Marchal G, Nevens F. Endovascular shunt reduction in the management of transjugular portosystemic shunt-induced hepatic encephalopathy: preliminary experience with reduction stents and stent-grafts. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(3):659-64.

Ochs A. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Dig Dis. 2005;23:56-64.

Garcia-Tsao G, Sanyal AJ, Grace ND, Carey WD. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(9):2086-102.

Yoshida H, Mamada Y, Taniai N, Tajiri T. New methods for the management of gastric varices. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12(37):5926-31.

Smith JL, Graham DY. Variceal hemorrhage. A critical evaluation of survival analysis. Gastroenterology. 1982;82:962-73.

Graham DY, Smith JL. The course of patients after variceal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology 1981;80:800-9.

Pugh RN, Murray-Lyon IM, Dawson JL, Pietroni MC, Williams R. Transection of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices. Br J Surg 1973;60:646-9.

Infante-Rivard C, Esnaola S, Villeneuve JP. Clinical and statistical validity of conventional prognostic factors in predicting short-term survival among cirrhotics. Hepatology. 987;7:660-4.

D'Amico G, Luca A. Natural history. Clinical-haemodynamic correlations. Prediction of the risk of bleeding. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol. 1997;11(2):243-56.

Burroughs AK. The natural history of varices. J Hepatol. 1993;17 Suppl 2:S10-3.

Laine L, Cook D. Endoscopic ligation compared with sclerotherapy for treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123(4):280-7.

Hou MC, Lin HC, Kuo BIT, Chan CH, Lee FY, Lee SD. Comparison of endoscopic variceal injection sclerotherapy and ligation for the treatment of esophageal variceal hemorrhage: a prospective randomized trial. Hepatology. 1995;21:1517-22.