Factors associated with low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Enugu, Nigeria
Keywords:Challenges, Exclusive breastfeeding, Nigeria
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding has proven to be beneficial both maternal and child health hence its adopted as a policy for infant feeding in most countries especially developing nations. Its practice has remained low despite the high levels of awareness of exclusive breastfeeding. The study set out to find out the possible reasons that have limited the translation of knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding to action by nursing mothers in an urban city in Nigeria.
Methods: A self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 304 mothers attending immunization clinics of the Institute of maternal and child health in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria.
Results: Awareness of exclusive breastfeeding was 98% with an exclusive breastfeeding rate of 26%. The commonest non-human milk given to infant was water- given in the first week of life. Post-natal support from lactation experts and family, beliefs about the sufficiency of human milk and subsequent refusal of complementary foods were major challenges to successful exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal age and education did not determine exclusive breastfeeding.
Conclusions: Exclusive breastfeeding rates have remained low in Nigeria. Lack of family support and the belief that human milk is not sufficient food for the less-than-six-months-old infant were major challenges to exclusive breastfeeding.
.Michael S. Kramer, Beverley Chalmers, Ellen D. Hodnett, Zinaida Sevkovskaya, Irina Dzikovich, Stanley Shapiro. (2001). Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): A randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(4): 413-420
Unicef Media Center. West and Central Africa. Promoting and Protecting Breast feeding. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/wcaro/4501_5055.html Accessed 14th September 2016.
Emmanuel Adewuyi, Kazeem Adefemi.Breastfeeding in Nigeria: a Systematic Review. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health 2016 ;3(2):385-96
Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Data by country Global Health Observatory data repository. Accessible at http://apps.who.int/gho/data/view.main.NUT1730?lang=en
Desirable rate of exclusive breastfeeding, still a distant goal in most of the Arab world
Colter K, Hawken M, Temmerman M. Low use of skilled attendant’s Delivery Services in rural Kenya. Journal of Health Population and Nutrition 2006; 24 (4):467-71.
A. Gitimu, C.Herr, H.Oruko, E.Karijo, R.Gichuki, P. Ofware. Determinants of use of skilled birth attendant at delivery in Makueni Kenya; a cross – sectional study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2015; 3;15:9. doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0442-2.
National Population Commission. Nigeria 2013 Demographic and Health Survey. Abuja: National Population Commission.
Ojo Agunbiade, Opeyemi Ogunleye. Constraints to Exclusive Breast Feeding practice among Breast feeding Mothers in South West Nigeria; Implications for scaling up. International Breastfeeding Journal 2012; 7:5 doi 10.1186 / 1746 – 4358-7-5.
U Agu, MC Agu. Knowledge and Practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding among mothers in a rural population in South Eastern Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Medical Research 2011; 2 (15): Available http://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjmr/article/view/74756
S. Onah, D. Osuorah, J. Ebenebe, C. Ezechukwu, U. Ekwochi, I. Ndukwu. Infant Feeding Practices and Maternal Socio-demographic factors that influence Exclusive Breast feeding among Mothers in Nnewi, South East Nigeria: a Cross-sectional and Analytical study. International Breastfeeding Journal 2014; 9:6 doi: 10.1186/1746 – 4358-9-6.
E. Triabaya–Mudzengerere. The Factors that determine Exclusive Breastfeeding amongst babies below six months old at Chitungwiza Central Hospital Zimbabwe. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance 2013:4 (4): 1-19.
H. Jiang, M.LI, D.Yang L. Wen, C. Hunter, G.He, X.Qian. Awareness, Intention, and Needs Regarding Breastfeeding: Findings from First-Time Mothers in Shanghai, China. Breastfeeding Medicine 2012;7 (6): 526 – 34.
B. Ajibuah. Apprasial of Nursing Mothers’ Knowledge and Practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Yobe State, Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare 2013; 3 (20):75 – 81
J. Danso. Examining the practice of Exclusive Breast Feeding among Professional Working Mothers in Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. International Journal of Nursing 2014;1(1):11 – 24.
UNICEF Nigeria. Maternal and Child health. Retrieved from website 2Ist February 2017 at http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/children_192G.html
Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria. Malnutrition – Nigeria’s Silent Crisis. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013 – Preliminary Report.
L.Oakley, M. Renfrew, J. Kurinczuc, M Ouigley. Factors associated with Exclusive breastfeeding in England: an analysis by primary care trust. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002765 doi1136/bmjopen-2013-002765
JR Jones, MD Kogan, GK Singh, DL Dee, LM Grummer-Strawn. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the United States. Pediatrics 2011;128(6):DOI:10.1542/peds2011
Patel S1, Patel S2. The Effectiveness of Lactation Consultants and Lactation Counselors on Breastfeeding Outcomes. Journal Human Lactation 2016; 32(3):530-41
Kakute PN, Ngiem J, Mitchell P, Kroll KA, Forgwei GW, Ngwang ILK, Meyer DJ. Cultural Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding by Mothers in a rural area of Cameroun Africa. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s health, 2005;50;(4):324-8
National Policy on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Health, Nutrition Division, Abuja 2005. Accessible from http://www.africanchildinfo.net/clr/policy%20per%20country/nigeria/nigeria_infantfeeeding_2005_en.pdf.
Donmozoun Télesphore Somé, Issiaka Sombié, Nicolas Meda. How decision for seeking maternal care is made - a qualitative study in two rural medical districts of Burkina Faso. Reproductive Health 2013 10:8 DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-10-8