Thyroid hormone alteration in women with pre-eclampsia

Swati A. Tadas, Arun K. Tadas


Background: Preeclampsia and eclampsia are major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The obstetricians are increasingly becoming aware of the potential or adverse effects of hypothyroidism on the outcome of pregnancy.

Methods: This analytical, cross sectional, case control study is designed to compare the levels of thyroid hormone in women with preeclampsia and in normal pregnant women in the third trimester.

Results: Levels of total T3 and T4 in preeclamptic women were significantly lower than that of controls whereas the mean level of TSH was significantly higher in preeclamptic group than controls.

Conclusions: Primary hypo-functioning of the thyroid can accompany mild preeclampsia. Estimation of thyroid hormone levels in first and the third trimester of pregnancy are recommended.


Preeclampsia, Thyroid

Full Text:



Cunnigham F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Hauth JC, Gilstrap LC, Wenstrom KD. Williams obstetrics. 22nd ed. Mac Graw Hill. 2010;725.

Lao TT, Chin RKH, Swaminathan R. Thyroid function in pre-eclampsia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988;95:880-3.

Basbug M, Aygen E, Tayyar M, Tutus A, Kaya E, Oktem O. Correlation between maternal thyroid function tests and endothelin in preeclampsia-eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94;551-5.

Osanthanondh R, Tulchinsky D, Chopra IJ.Total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine innormal and complicated pregnancy. J Clin Endocr Metab 1976;42:98-104.

Tolino A, De Conciliis B, Montemagno U. Thyroid hormones in human pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1985;64:557-9.

Kaya E, Sahin Y, Ozkececi Z, Pasaoglu H. Relation between birth weight and thyroid function in pre-elampsia-eclampsia. Gynaecol Obstet Invest. 1994;37:30-3

Lao TT, Chin RKH, Swaminathan R, Lam YM. Maternal thyroid hormones and outcome of pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;97:71-4.

Kumar A, Ghosh BK, Murthy NS. Maternal thyroid hormonal status in preeclampsia. Indian J Medical Sciences. 2015;59(2):57-63.

Raoofi Z, Jalilion A, Zanzani MS. Comparison of thyroid hormone levels between normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2014;28;1.

Zhou J, Du J, Ma B, Liu X, Qiu H, Li J, et al. Thyroid hormone changes in women with preeclampsia and its relationship with the presence of pre-eclampsia. Chinese J Obstetrics and Gynaec. 2014;49(2):109-13.

Vargas F, Montes R, Sabio JM, Garcia-Estan J. Role of nitric oxide in the systemic circulation of conscious hyper- and hypothyroid rats. Gen Pharmacol. 1994;25:887-91.

Khadem N, Ayatollahi H, Vahid Roodsari F, Ayati S, Dalili E, Shahabian M. et al. Comparison of serum levels of Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid- Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. Iranian J Reproductive Medicine. 2012;10(1):47-52.

Khaliq F, Singhal U, Arshad Z, Hossain MM. Thyroid hormones in preeclampsia and its correlation with maternal age, parity, severity of blood pressure and serum albumin. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1999;43(2):193-8.

Inversetti A, Serafini A, Manzoni MF, Capuzzo AD, Valsecchi L, et al. Severe hypothyroidism causing preeclampsia like syndrome. Case report in Endocrinology. 2012(2012):586056.

Akiibinu MO, Kolawole TO, Ekun OA, Akiibinu SO. Metabolic dysfunction in Nigerian Preeclamptic. Maternal –Fetal Medicine. Archieves of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2013;208(5):1021-6.

Davis PH, Black EG, Sheppard MC, Franklin JA. Relation between interleukin- 6 and thyroid hormone concentration in270 hospital in patients with non-thyroidal illness. Clin Endocrinol. 1996;44:199-205.

Spencer C, Eigen A, Shen D, Duda M, Qualls S, Weiss S, et al. Specificity of sensitive assays of thyrotropin (TSH) used to screen for thyroid disease in hospitalized patients. Clin Chem. 1987;33:1391-6.

Smith SCH, Bold AM. Interpretation of in vitro thyroid function tests during pregnancy. Br J Obstet and Gynaecol. 1983;90:532-4.