Sex determination from adult human humerus by discriminant function analysis

Bhaskar B. Reddy, M. A. Doshi


Background: Sex determination of unidentified skeletal remains from crime scenes or excavation sites is an important component in the development of the biological profile in forensics, anthropology and bioarchaeology. The purpose of this research is to determine whether sexing of unknown adult human humerus bones can be done by applying values of morphometric parameters and formulae generated by present study on adult human humerus bones of known sex and to find out the best parameters for sex determination.

Methods: Various metric measurements were recorded using osteo metric board, measuring tape, non-elastic thread, sliding calipers and Vernier calipers on adult human humerus bones.

Results: Sex was correctly estimated by using stepwise discriminant function analysis, for the clavicle 100% of males and 95% of females, with a total accuracy of 98.1%. Direct discriminant function analysis, correct estimated sex for the clavicle was 100% in males and 95% in females with a total accuracy of 98.1%.

Conclusions: Present study exhibited better classification accuracy for multiple variables than those of single variables, the most discriminating variables in stepwise analysis are the weight, total length, transverse diameter of head, circumference of midshaft, trochlear width, capitulum width. In direct analysis, the single most useful variable was the transverse diameter of head.


Capitulum width, Circumference of midshaft, Transverse diameter of head, Trochlear width

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