DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20173702

Sex determination from adult human humerus by discriminant function analysis

Bhaskar B. Reddy, M. A. Doshi

Abstract


Background: Sex determination of unidentified skeletal remains from crime scenes or excavation sites is an important component in the development of the biological profile in forensics, anthropology and bioarchaeology. The purpose of this research is to determine whether sexing of unknown adult human humerus bones can be done by applying values of morphometric parameters and formulae generated by present study on adult human humerus bones of known sex and to find out the best parameters for sex determination.

Methods: Various metric measurements were recorded using osteo metric board, measuring tape, non-elastic thread, sliding calipers and Vernier calipers on adult human humerus bones.

Results: Sex was correctly estimated by using stepwise discriminant function analysis, for the clavicle 100% of males and 95% of females, with a total accuracy of 98.1%. Direct discriminant function analysis, correct estimated sex for the clavicle was 100% in males and 95% in females with a total accuracy of 98.1%.

Conclusions: Present study exhibited better classification accuracy for multiple variables than those of single variables, the most discriminating variables in stepwise analysis are the weight, total length, transverse diameter of head, circumference of midshaft, trochlear width, capitulum width. In direct analysis, the single most useful variable was the transverse diameter of head.


Keywords


Capitulum width, Circumference of midshaft, Transverse diameter of head, Trochlear width

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barrier ILO, L’Abbé EN. Sex determination from the radius and ulna in a modern South African sample. Forensic Sci Int. 2008;179:85e1-7.

Blanchard BK. A study of the accuracy and reliability of sex estimation methods of the human pelvis(Master's thesis). 2010:14. Retrieved from http://csuchico-dspace.calstate.eduBidmos.

MA, Gibbon VE, Strkalj G. Recent advances in sex identification of human skeletal remains in South Africa. South Afr J Sci. 2010;106:1-6.

Goes AC, Silva DA, Domingues CS, Sobrinho JM, Carvalho EF. Identification of a criminal by DNA typing in a rape case in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sao Paulo Med J. 2002;120(3):77-9.

Iscan MY, Solla HE, McCabe BQ. Victim of a dictatorial regime: identification of Mr. Roberto Gomensoro Josman. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;151(2-3):213-20.

Oz C, Levi JA, Novoselski Y, Volkov N, Motro U. Forensic identification of a rapist using unusual evidence. J Forensic Sci. 1999;44(4):860-2.

Ulijaszek SJ, Masci-Taylor CJN. Anthropometry: The individual and the population, Cambridge studies in biological anthropology. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press; 1994:213.

Eveleth PB, Tanner JM. World-wide Variation in Human Growth, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1976:287.

Novotny V, Iscan MY, Loth SR. Morphological and osteometric assessment of age, sex and race from the skull. In: Iscan MY, Helmer RP, editors. Forensic Analysis of the Skull. Wiley-Liss, Inc; 1993:71-88.

Dittrick J, Suchey JM. Sex determination of prehistoric central California skeletal remains using discriminant analysis of the femur and humerus. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1986;70(1):3-9.

France DL. Observational and Metric Analysis of Sex in the Skeleton Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains.1998:163-86.

Işcan MY. Sexual dimorphism in the humerus: a comparative analysis of Chinese, Japanese and Thais. Forensic Sci Int. 1998;98(1-2):17-29.

Steyn M, Işcan MY. Osteometric variation in the humerus: sexual dimorphism in South Africans. Forensic Sci Int. 1999;106(2):77-85.

Mall G, Hubig M, Büttner A, Kuznik J, Penning R, Graw M. Sex determination and estimation of stature from the long bones of the arm. Forensic Sci Int. 2001;117(1):23-30.

Sakaue K. Sexual determination of long bones in recent Japanese. Anthropol Sci. 2004;112(1):75-81.

Rios Frutos L. Metric determination of sex from the humerus in a Guatemalan forensic sample. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;147(2-3):153-7.

Kranioti EF, Michalodimitrakis M. Sexual dimorphism of the humerus in contemporary Cretans-a population-specific study and a review of the literature. J Forensic Sci. 2009;54(5):996-1000.

Ross AH, Manneschi MJ. New identification criteria for the Chilean population: estimation of sex and stature. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;204(1-3):206e1-3.

Patil G, Kolagi S, Ramadurg U. Sexual dimorphism in the humerus: a study on South Indians. J Clin Diag Res. 2011;5(3):538-41.

Lee JH, Kim YS, Lee U, Park DK, Jeong YG, Lee NS, et al. Sex determination using upper limb bones in Korean populations. Anatomy Cell Biol. 2014;47(3):196-201.

Barnes J, Wescott DJ. Sex determination of Mississippian skeletal remains from humeral measurements. Missouri Archaeol J Missouri Archaeol Society. 2007;68.