Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients of metabolic syndrome in a rural population attending tertiary care centre
Keywords:Metabolic syndrome, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Rural population
Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis now constitute the major etiology of chronic liver disease. Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is rising due to the change in lifestyle habits, diet and obesity. Metabolic syndrome is closely related with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Studies showed that prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising in Indian population. This study was conducted to look into the current status of the metabolic syndrome in rural population.
Methods: The study was conducted among patients attending General Medicine OPD. Each participant was subjected to clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory investigations and abdominal ultrasound. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasound and metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on modified NCEP:ATP III criteria.
Results: The prevalence of NAFLD was found to be 18.78% and was higher among male population (20.05%) as compared to females (17.32%). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among NAFLD and control groups were 42.74% and 17.91% respectively.
Conclusions: Present study has shown moderate prevalence of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome among the rural population of western Uttar Pradesh with a more male predisposition.
Angulo P. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1221-31.
Jeanne MC, Federick L, Brancati, Dhiel M. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastoenterol. 2002;122:1649-69.
Farrell GC, Larter CZ. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: from steatosis to cirrhosis. Hepatol. 2006;43:S1-112.
Scaffner F, Thaler H. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a progressive liver disease. Scandinavian J Gastroenterol. 1986;8:283-93.
Bellentani S, Scaglioni F, Marino M, Bedogni G. Epidemiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dig Dis. 2010;28:155-61.
Joseph AE, Saverymuttu SH, Al-Sams, Cook MG. Comparison of liver histology with USG in assessing diffuse parenchymal liver disease. Radiol. 1991;43:26-31.
Debacre C, Rigauts H, Laukens. Transient focal fatty infiltration mimicking liver metastasis. Radiol. 1998;81:174-85.
Mitchell DG. Focal manifestations of diffuse liver disease at magnetic resonance imaging. Radiol. 1992;185:1-11.
Longo R, Polle Sello P, Ricci. Proton MR spectroscopy in quantitative in vivo determination of fat in human liver steatosis. J M.R. Imaging 1995;5:281-5.
Younossi ZM, Diehl AM, Ong JP. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: an agenda for clinical research. Hepatol. 2002;35:746-52.
Kahn R, Buse J, Ferranninie E, Stern M. The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal: Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(9):2289-304.
Ford ES. Risks for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome: a summary of the evidence. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(7):1769-78.
Kotronen A, Yki Jarvinen H. Fatty liver: a novel component of the metabolic syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28(1):27-38.
Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the study of Obesity. Circulation. 2009;120:1640-5.
Nomora H, Kashiwagi S, Hayashi. Prevalence of fatty liver in the general population of Okinawa, Japan. Jap J Med. 1998;27:142-9.
Singh SP, Nayak S, Swarn M. Prevalence of NAFLD in eastern coastal India: a preliminary USG study. Tropical Gastroenterol. 2004;2:76-9.
Dixon JR, Bathol PS, Obrien PE. NASH-predictors of liver fibrosis in severely obese. Gastroenterol. 2001;12:91-100.
Goland S, Shimoni S, Zornitzki, Knobler. Cardiac manifestations: a new manifestation of NAFLD. J Clin Gastro. 2006;40:949-55.