DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20174604

A study on malassezia micro flora in the skin of healthy individuals in North Kerala, India

Remya V. S., Arun B., Sheeba P. M., Pratyusha Kokkayil

Abstract


Background: Malassezia spp are accounted for approximately 60-90% of the total cutaneous fungal micro biota. An enhanced understanding of the distribution of Malassezia spp in healthy individuals is necessary to gain insight to involvement of these species in human skin disorders particularly in pityriasis versicolor. The aim of this study was to assess the Malassezia micro flora of healthy individuals and to identify species variation with different body sites, gender and age groups.

Methods: A total of 120 apparently healthy men and 120 women without any skin diseases or who were not treated for Malassezia associated skin diseases were selected for the study. The specimens consisted of scrapings collected from chest, back and neck from each control subject totaling 720 sites.

Results: The recovery rate of Malassezia was positive in case of 452 (62.78%) of 720 sites sampled, while the remaining 268 (37.22%) were found to be negative. Recovery rate of Malassezia was highest in chest with 83.33% positive cases, followed by the back with 73.33% and the neck 31.67%. M. globosa was identified as the common species (46.46%) followed by M. furfur (25%) and M. restricta (22.56%). No significant difference was present (P > 0.05) in distribution of species with different body sites, gender and age groups.

Conclusions: The overall colonization rate of Malassezia spp in normal healthy individuals found in this study was 62.78%. M. globosa was identified as the common species (46.46%).


Keywords


Malassezia species, Normal microflora

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fredricks DN. Microbial ecology of human skin in health and disease. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2001;6:167-9.

Gaitanis G, Magiatis P, Hantschke M, Bassukas ID, Velegraki A. The Malassezia genus in skin and systemic diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012;25(1):106-41.

Afshar P, Ghasemi M, Kalhori S. Identification of Malassezia Species Isolated From Patients With Pityriasis Versicolor in Sari, Iran. 2012. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013;6(6):e8581.

Velegraki A, Cafarchia C, Gaitanis G, Iatta R, Boekhout T. Malassezia infections in humans and animals: pathophysiology, detection, and treatment. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11(1):e1004523.

Carrillo-Muñoz AJ, Rojas F, TurTur C, Ángeles Sosa M, Diez GO, Espada CM, et al. In vitro antifungal activity of topical and systemic antifungal drugs against Malassezia species. Mycoses. 2013;56(5):571-5.

Ashbee HR, Evans EG. Immunology of diseases associated with Malassezia species. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15(1):21-57.

Guého-Kellermann E, Boekhout T, Begerow D. Biodiversity, phylogeny and ultrastructure. In: Boekhout T, Guého-Kellermann E, Mayser P, Velegraki A, editors. Malassezia and the skin. Berlin: Springer Verlag. 2010:17-63.

Guillot J, Guého E, Lesourd M, Midgley G, Chévrier G, Dupont B. Identification of Malassezia species: a practical approach. J Mycol Med. 1996;6(3):103-10.

Mayser P, Haze P, Papavassilis C, Pickel M, Gruender K, Gueho E. Differentiation of Malassezia species: selectivity of cremophor EL, castor oil and ricinoleic acid for M. furfur. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137(2):208-13.

Leeming JP, Notman FH, Holland KT. The distribution and ecology of Malassezia furfur and cutaneous bacteria on human skin. J Appl Bacteriol. 1989;67(1):47-52.

Sugita T, Boekhout T, Velegraki A, Guillot J, Hađina S, Cabañes FJ. Epidemiology of Malassezia-related skin diseases. In: Boekhout T, Guého-Kellermann E, Mayser P, Velegraki A, editors. Malassezia and the Skin. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 2010:65-119.

Crespo Erchiga V, Guého E. Superficial diseases caused by Malassezia species. 10 ed. Merz WG HR, editor. London: Hodder Arnold; 2005.

Jang SJ, Lim SH, Ko JH, Oh BH, Kim SM, Song YC, et al. The investigation on the distribution of Malassezia yeasts on the normal Korean skin by 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP. Ann Dermatol. 2009;21(1):18-26.

Oh BH, Song YC, Lee YW, Choe YB, Ahn KJ. Comparison of nested PCR and RFLP for identification and classification of Malassezia yeasts from healthy human Skin. Ann Dermatol. 2009;21(4):352-7.

Tarazooie B, Kordbacheh P, Zaini F, Zomorodian K, Saadat F, Zeraati H, et al. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tehran, Iran. BMC Dermatol. 2004;4:5.

Prohic A, Simic D, Sadikovic TJ, Krupalija-Fazlic M. Distribution of Malassezia species on healthy human skin in Bosnia and Herzegovina: correlation with body part, age and gender. Iran J Microbiol. 2014;6(4):253-62.

Falk MHS, Linder MT, Johansson C, Bartosik J, Back O, Sarnhult T, et al. The prevalence of Malassezia yeasts in patients with atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and healthy controls. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85(1):17-23.

AliJafari A, Zarrinfar H, Mirzaei F, Katiraee F. Distribution of Malassezia Species in Patients with Pityriasis versicolor Compared with Healthy Individuals in Yazd, Iran Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2013;6(7):e6873.

Kaur M, Narang T, Bala M, Gupte S, Aggarwal P, Manhas A. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in tertiary care hospital, Punjab. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2013;(31):270-4.

Salah SB, Makni F, Marrakchi S, Sellami H, Cheikhrouhou F, Bouassida S, Zahaf A, Ayadi A. Identification of Malassezia species from Tunisian patients with pityriasis versicolor and normal subjects. Mycoses. 2005;(48):242-245.

Lee YW, Lim SH, Ahn KJ. The application of 26S rDNA PCR-RFLP in the identification and classification of Malassezia yeast. Korean J Med Mycol. 2006;11(3):141-53.

Marcon MJ, Powell DA. Human infections due to Malassezia spp. Clin Microbiol Re. 1992;5(2):101-19.

De Quinzada MM. Estudio de las especies de Malassezia,relacionadas con la patologia cutanea, pitiriasis versicolor en Panama: University of Panama; 2005.

Thayikkannu A, Kindo A, Veeraragahavan M. Characterisation of Malassezia species and their clinical correlation in a tertiary healthcare centre in South India. J Acad Clin Microbiol. 2013;15(2):49.

Aspiroz C, Ara M, Varea M, Rezusta A, Rubio C. Isolation of Malassezia globosa and M. sympodialis from patients with pityriasis versicolor in Spain. Mycopathologia. 2002;154(3):111-7.

Prohic A, Ozegovic L. Malassezia species isolated from lesional and non-lesional skin in patients with pityriasis versicolor. Mycoses. 2007;50(1):58-63.