Prevalence of hypertension and associated factors in a rural community in Bayelsa State

Oghenekaro G. Egbi, Dimie Ogoina, Abisoye Oyeyemi


Background: Hypertension is considered among the most common non-communicable diseases globally with significant morbidity and mortality. Closely related to it is pre-hypertension, a category between hypertension and normotension which is believed to be a forerunner to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Hypertension has been on the increase in recent times, even in rural communities which were previously less affected. The study was carried during the world health day as a screening exercise to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in a rural community.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Ogboloma village, a small rural community in Bayelsa State, Ngeria Consecutive sampling of all eligible participants who presented for the screening exercise was done. Socio-demographic data, clinical history, anthropometry and blood pressure were taken. Data was stored and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: One hundred and thirty-one participants completed the study. There were 49(37.4%) males. The prevalence of hypertension was 50.4% while pre-hypertension was found in another 41.2%. Factors associated with hypertension on univariate analysis were age (p <0.001) body mass index (p=0.038) waist hip ratio (p=0.008) hyperglycemia (p=0.030) and smoking (p=0.009) However, only age (p=0.004) and smoking (p=0.037) remained significant on multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Hypertension and Pre-hypertension were highly prevalent in this rural community. Age and smoking were significant predictors of hypertension. Hypertension screening and control programmes should therefore target rural communities and smokers.


Hypertension, Nigeria, Obesity, Pre-hypertension, Rural community, Smoking

Full Text:



Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2224-60.

Cressman MD, Gifford RW. Hypertension and stroke. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1983;1(2):521-7.

Post WS, Hill MN, Dennison CR, Weiss JL, Gerstenblith G, Blumenthal RS. High prevalence of target organ damage in young, African American Inner-City men with hypertension. J Clin Hypertens. 2003;5(1):24-30.

Khakurel S, Agrawal R, Hada R. Pattern of end stage renal disease in a tertiary care center. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2009;48(174):126-30.

Lenfant C, Chobanian AV, Jones DW, Roccella EJ. Seventh report of the Joint national committee on the prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure (JNC 7): Resetting the hypertension sails. Hypertension. 2003;41:1178-9.

Suri MF, Qureshi AI. Prehypertension as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006;21:478-82.

Slama M, Susic D, Frohlich ED. Prevention of hypertension. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2002;17(5):531-6.

Murthy GV, Fox S, Sivasubramaniam S, Gilbert CE, Mahdi AM, Imam AU, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for hypertension and association with ethnicity in Nigeria: results from a national survey. Cardiovasc J Afr. 2013;24:1-7.

Andy JJ, Peters EJ, Ekrikpo UE, Akpan NA, Unadike BC, Ekott JU. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension among the Ibibio/Annangs, Efiks and Obolos: a cross sectional community survey in rural South-South Nigeria. Ethn Dis. 2012;22(3):335-9.

Ogah OS, Okpechi I, Chukwuonye II, Akinyemi JO, Onwubere BJC, Falase AO, et al. Blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and hypertension related complications in Nigerian Africans: A review. World J Cardiol. 2012;4(12):327-40.

Onwuchekwa AC, Mezie-Okoye MM, Babatunde S. Prevalence of hypertension in Kegbara-Dere, a rural community in the Niger Delta region, Nigeria. Ethn Dis. 2012;22(3):340-617.

Ogah OS, Madukwe OO, Onyeonoro UU, Chukwuonye II, Ukegbu AU, Akhimien MO, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and noncommunicable diseases in Abia State, Nigeria: report of a community based survey. Int J Med Biomed Res. 2013;2(1):57-68.

Fobil J, May J, Kraemer A. Assessing the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and urban environmental quality in Accra, Ghana. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010;7(1):125-45.

WHO. Expert Committee: Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry: report of a WHO expert committee (WHO Technical Report Series; 854) Geneva. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser. 1995;854:1-452.

Alberti G, Zimmet P, Shaw J. IDF Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome: a new worldwide definition. Lancet. 2005;366(9491):1059-1962.

Snijder MB, Van Dam RM, Visser M, Seidell JC. What aspects of body fat are particularly hazardous and how do we measure them? Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:83.

Whitworth JA. World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21(11):1983-92.

Wang H, Zhang X, Zhang J, He Q, Hu R, Wang L, et al. Factors associated with prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in southern China: a community based cross-sectional survey. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e62469.

Umpierrez GE, Hellman R, Korytkowski MT, Kosiborod M, Maynard GA, Montori VM, et al. Management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients in non-critical care setting: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(1):16-38.

Egbi OG, Okafor UH, Miebodei KE, Kunle-Olowu OE, Unuigbe EI. Prevalence of hypertension in an urban population in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. J Med Res Pract. 2013;2:11-5.

Egbi OG, Rotifa S, Jumbo J. Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates among employees of a tertiary hospital in Yenagoa, Nigeria. Ann Afr Medd. 2015;14(1):8-17.

Onwuchekwa AC, Mezie-Okoye MM, Babatunde S. Prevalence of hypertension in Kegbara-Dere, a rural community in the Niger Delta region. Nigeria. Ethn Dis. 2012;22:340-6.

Ofili MI, Ncama BP, Sartorius B. Hypertension in rural communities in Delta State, Nigeria: Prevalence, risk factors and barriers to health care. Afr J Pri Heal Care Family Med. 2015;7(1):1-7.

Isara AR, Okundia RO. The burden of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;20:103.

Akpan EE, Ekrikpo UE, Udo AI, Bassey BE. Prevalence of hypertension in Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria: rural versus urban communities study. International journal of hypertension. 2015;2015.

Okwuonu CG, Ngoka SC, Chimezie OJ, Eze TH, Uwanurochi K, Augustus Mbanaso AU. Towards prevention of hypertension in Nigeria: a study of prehypertension and its associations among apparently healthy adults in Umuahia, South-East Nigeria. Int J Prev Med. 2015;6:61.

Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Evans JC, O'Donnell CJ, Kannel WB, et al. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(18):1291-7.

Anderson GH. Effect of age on hypertension: analysis of over 4,800 referred hypertensive patients. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transp. 1999;10(3):286-97.

Dalton M, Cameron AJ, Zimmet PZ, Shaw JE, Jolley D, Dunstan DW, et al. Waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index and their correlation with cardiovascular disease risk factors in Australian adults. J Intern Med. 2003;254:555-63.

Sanya AO, Ogwumike OO, Ige AP, Ayanniyi OA. Relationship of waist hip ratio and body mass Index with blood pressure of individuals. Afr J Physiother Med Rehabil Sci. 2009;1:7-11.

Xiao YQ, Liu Y, Zheng SL, Yang Y, Fan S, Yang C, et al. Relationship between hypertension and body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio in middle-aged and elderly residents. Zhongua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2016;37(9):1223-7.

Ezekwesili CN, Ononamadu CJ, Onyeukwu OF, Mefoh NC. Epidemiological survey of hypertension in Anambra state, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2016;19:659-67.

Osuji CU, Omejua EG, Onwubuya EI, Ahaneku GI. Serum Lipid Profile of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi, South East Nigeria. Int J Hypertens. 2012;

Salmasi AM, Alimo A, Dancy M. Prevalence of unrecognized abnormal glucose tolerance in patients attending a hospital hypertension clinic. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17(6):483-8.

Cuschieri S, Vassallo J, Calleja N, Pace N, Mamo J. The effects of socioeconomic determinants on hypertension in a cardiometabolic at-risk European Country. Int J Hypertens. 2017;2017:7107385.

Wang Y, Chen J, Wang K, Edwards CL. Education as an important risk factor for the prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure in Chinese men and women. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20(11):898-900.

Brummett BH, Babyak MA, Siegler IC, Shanahan M, Harris KM, Elder GH. Systolic blood pressure, socioeconomic status, and biobehavioral risk factors in a nationally representative US young adult sample. Hypertension. 2011;58(2):161-6.

Skiros EA, Papadodima SA, Sotiropoulos A, Xipnitos C, Kollias A, Spillopoulou CA. Relationship between alcohol consumption and control of hypertension among elderly Greeks. The Nemea primary care study. Hellenic J Cardiol. 2012;53:26-52.