DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20180629

A study of relation between primary open angle glaucoma and type II diabetes mellitus

Aditya Desai, Dipak Patel, Avani Sapovadia, Parin Mehta, Jyotindra Brahmbhatt

Abstract


Background: Primary open angle glaucoma has been characterized by its adult onset, IOP >21mmHg at some point in the course of the disease, open angles on gonioscopy, glaucomatous visual field changes and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. POAG is a multi-factorial disease such as age, black race, positive family history, high myopia etc. Diabetes mellitus has also been considered as one of the risk factors, but no major study has been conducted to provide tangible proof.

Methods: This cross sectional, case control study was conducted to determine whether diabetes stands as a risk factor in development of glaucoma. The selected patients were divided into 3 groups based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were subjected to complete ocular examination including gonioscopy and perimetry.

Results: The 16 patients from 50 of the diabetic group (28%) were found to have POAG. The p value was <0.005 which was statistically significant. Also, no correlation was found between blood sugar and IOP levels in these patients.

Conclusions: These data show a significant correlation between diabetes and glaucoma. Further studies are warranted to determine its actual role in pathogenesis of glaucoma.


Keywords


Diabetes, POAG, Risk factors

Full Text:

PDF

References


Duke-Elder, Jay B. systems of Ophthalmology-Disease of the lens and vitreous; Glaucoma and hypotony. London: Henry Kimpton; 1969.

American Academy of Ophthalmology. Primary Open-angle glaucoma: preferred practice pattern, San Francisco, The Academy;2005.

Hitchings RA. Glaucoma screening. Br J Ophthalmol. 1993;77:326.

American Academy of Ophthalmology. Glaucoma 2009-2010;6-8:31-36,53-58.

Vijaya L, George R, Baskaran M, Arvind H, Raju P, Ramesh SV, et al. Prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma in an urban south Indian population and comparison with a rural population. The Chennai Glaucoma Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:648-543.

Ramakrishnan R, Nirmalan PK, Krishnadas K, Thulasiraj RD, Tielsch JM, Katz J, Friedman DS, et al. Glaucoma in a rural population of southern India: The Aravind Comprehensive Eye Survey. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:1484-90.

Dandona L, Dandona R, Srinivas M, Mandal P, John RK, McCarty CA, et al. Open-angle glaucoma in an urban population in southern India: the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study. Ophthalmology. 2000;107(9):1702-9.

Mitchell P, Lee AJ, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ. Open-angle glaucoma and systemic hypertension: the blue mountains eye study. J Glaucoma. 2004 Aug;13(4):319-26.

Ritch R, Shields MB. Epidemiology of open-angle glaucoma. The Glaucomas, 2nd Edition. St. Louis, Missouri, USA, 1996:753-68.

Mitchell P, Smith W, Chey T, Healey PR. Open-angle glaucoma and diabetes: the Blue Mountains eye study, Australia. Ophthalmol. 1997;104(4):712-8.

Becker B. Diabetes mellitus and primary open-angle glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;71:1-13.

Quigley HA. The number of people with glaucoma worldwide. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80(5):389-93.

Leske MC. The epidemiology of open-angle glaucoma: a review. Am J Epidemiol. 1983;118(2):166-91.

Kong GY, Van Bergen NJ, Trounce IA, Crowston JG. Mitochondrial dysfunction and glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2009;18:93-100.

Toda N, Nakanishi-Toda M. Nitric oxide: ocular blood flow, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2007;26:205-38.

Neufeld AH, Hernandez MR, Gonzalez M. Nitric oxide synthase in the human glaucomatous optic nerve head. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115:497-503.

Clermont AC, Bursell SE. Retinal blood flow in diabetes. Microcirculation. 2007;14:49-61.

Arjamaa O, Nikinmaa M. Oxygen-dependent diseases in the retina: the role of hypoxia-inducible factors. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:473-83.

Danylkova NO, Pomeranz HD, Alcala SR, McLoon LK. Histological and morphometric evaluation of transient retinal and optic nerve ischemia in rat. Brain Res. 2006;1096:20-9.

Tezel G, Wax MB. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha in the glaucomatous retina and optic nerve head. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:1348-56.

Roberts MD, Grau V, Grimm J, Reynaud J, Bellezza AJ. Remodeling of the connective tissue microarchitecture of the lamina cribrosa in early experimental glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:681-90.

Johnson EC, Morrison JC, Farrell S, Deppmeier L, Moore CG, McGinty MR. The effect of chronically elevated intraocular pressure on the rat optic nerve head extracellular matrix. Experimental eye research. 1996;62(6):663-74.

Francis-Sedlak ME, Uriel S, Larson JC, Greisler HP, Venerus DC, Brey EM. Characterization of type I collagen gels modified by glycation. Biomaterials. 2009;30(9):1851-6.

Hennis A, Wu SY, Nemesure B, Leske MC. Hypertension, diabetes, and longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(5):908-14.

Sommer A. glaucoma risk factors observed in the Baltimore Eye Study. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1996;7(2):93-8.