Published: 2018-02-22

Prevalence of type and etiology of lung cancer among the patients presented to a tertiary care hospital at central Kerala: a descriptive study

Vadakkan Devassy Thomas, Binila Jose, Davis Kizhakkepeedika Rennis


Background: Lung cancer remains the most common cause of premature mortality in men in developing countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the type and etiological factors of lung cancer in patients presented to a tertiary care hospital of central Kerala.

Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted in patients who were diagnosed as lung cancer. The medical records of such patients were reviewed. The data such as age, gender, etiological risk factors and type of lung cancer were collected. Patients with incomplete reports or repeated tests, or histopathological findings were negative for lung cancers were excluded from the study.

Results: Total 228 patients were included in the study with age of 64.71± 9.75. The male (198) and female (30) ratio was 6.6:1, indicated the male dominance. Among the histological types, the squamous cell carcinoma was 29% (68/228) found as the most prevalent type which is followed by adenocarcinoma 26 % (61/228). The right side (132/228) lobe was the major segment than the left side (91/228). Similarly, incidence in the central region (128/228) was more than the peripheral region (69/228). Among the right side, the upper lobe was dominant when compared to the lower or middle lobe. The lower left lobe incidence was found in 47/228 cases. Among the total, 188 cases were tobacco smokers while the remaining were nonsmokers.

Conclusions: Squamous cell carcinoma with right side upper lobe of lung was prevalent among the lung cancer cases. Tobacco smoking was found to be the major etiological factor.


Bronchoscopy, Cytology, Lung cancer, Squamous cell carcinoma

Full Text:



Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin DM. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN2008. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:2893-917.

Ezzati M, Henley SJ, Lopez AD, Thun MJ, Role of smoking in global and regional cancer epidemiology: current patterns and data needs. Int J Cancer. 2005;116:963-71.

Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e442.

Thankappan KR, Thresia CU. Tobacco use and social status in Kerala. Indian J Med Res. 2007;126: 300-308n.

Malik PS, Raina V. Lung cancer: Prevalent trends and emerging concepts. Indian J Med Res. 2015;141:5-7.

Behera D, Balamugesh T. Lung cancer in India. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2004;46:269-81.

Janssen-Heijnen ML, Coebergh JW. The changing epidemiology of lung cancer in Europe. Lung Cancer. 2003;41:245-58.

Increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma of the lung. Valaitis J, Warren S, Gamble D. Cancer. 1981;47:1042-6.

Singh N, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Behera D, Jindal SK. Unchanging clinico-epidemiological profile of lung cancer in north India over three decades. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34:101-4.

Malik PS, Sharma MC, Mohanti BK, Shukla NK, Deo S, Mohan A, et al. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:489-94.

World Health Organization. Global burden of disease 2002 estimates (revised). Accessed January 23, 2008.

Noronha V, Pinninti R, Patil VM, Joshi A, Prabhash K Lung cancer in the Indian subcontinent. South Asian J Cancer. 2016;5:95-103.

Alberg AJ, Samet JM. Epidemiology of lung cancer. Chest. 2003;123:21S-49S.

Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K. Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence. Lung Cancer. 2004;45:S3-S9.

Haussmann HJ. Smoking and lung cancer: future research directions. Int J Toxicol.2007; 26: 353-364.

Fernandez A, Jatene FB, Zamboni M. Diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. J Pneumol. 2002;28:219-28.