DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20181750

Clinicopathological pattern of soft tissue sarcoma in a tertiary health institution in North Western Nigeria

Usman Malami Aliyu, Ehiosa Charles Okuofo, Charles Oluchukwu Okwonna, Sadiku Malami Sahabi

Abstract


Background: Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare group of heterogeneous tumours that consist of several neoplasia which differentiate into different cell lines. They could arise from the mesodermal or ectodermal embryonic germ layers. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue tumour in the paediatric age group in most studies, while in adults, malignant fibrous histocytoma, liposarcoma and fibrosarcoma are seen to be more predominant. The study aims to highlight the histological patterns, clinical presentation, associated risk factors and the patients’ performance status at presentation.

Methods: This is a 5-year retrospective between the period of 2010 to 2015 of all cancer patients diagnosed with soft tissue sarcoma, seen in the department of radiotherapy and oncology, a tertiary health centre in Sokoto Nigeria. Data collected included socio-demographic, histological type, clinical features, and performance status.

Results: A total of 123 patients were reviewed during the study period of 2010 to 2015: males were 81 (65.9%) and females were 42 (34.1%), with a male to female ratio of 1.93:1. The commonest histological type in both the adult and paediatric age group was rhabdomyosarcoma. Most patients presented with a swelling as seen in 62 (50.4%) cases. The extremities were the commonest site of involvement, with the lower limbs consisting 41 (33%) of the total patients reviewed.

Conclusions: Rhabdomyosarcoma was the most predominant histological type of soft tissue sarcoma seen over the review period and was seen in both the paediatric and adult age groups as the commonest type.


Keywords


Sarcoma, Soft tissue, Tumour

Full Text:

PDF

References


Burningham Z, Hashibe M, Spector L, Schiffman JD. The epidemiology of sarcoma. Clinical sarcoma research. 2012;2(1):14.

Adigun IA, Rahman GA. A review of soft tissue sarcoma. Niger J Med. 2007;16(2):94-101.

Vilanova JC, Woertler K, Narváez JA, Barceló J, Martínez SJ, Villalón M, Miró J. Soft-tissue tumors update: MR imaging features according to the WHO classification. European radiology. 2007;17(1):125-38.

Grimer R, Judson I, Peake D, Seddon B. Guidelines for the management of soft tissue sarcomas. Sarcoma. 2010;2010:506182.

Fang Z, Chen J, Teng S, Chen Y, Xue R. Analysis of soft tissue sarcomas in 1118 cases. Chin Med J. 2009;122(1):51-3.

Adigun IA, Rahman GA, Buhari MO, Ogundipe KO, Omotayo JA. Soft-tissue sarcoma in black Africans: pattern, distribution and management dilemma. J Natl Med Assoc. 2007;99(1):88-93.

Adeniji KA. Histopathological and histochemical patterns of soft tissue sarcomas in Ilorin, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2003;32(3):269-73.

Seleye-Fubara D, Nwosu SO, Yellowe BE, Bob-Yellowe E. Soft tissue sarcomas in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (a referral hospital’s study). Niger J Med. 2005;14(2):188-94.

Loeb DM, Thornton K, Shokek O. Pediatric soft tissue sarcomas. Surg Clin North Am. 2008;88(3):615-627.

Tsujimoto M, Aozasa K, Ueda T, Sakurai M, Ishiguro S, Kurata A, et al. Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Osaka, Japan (1962-1985): Review of 290 Cases. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1988;18(3):231-4.

Misauno MA, Ode MB, Shitta AH, Nwadiaro HC. Outcome of chemotherapy for adult soft tissue sarcomas in Jos, north central Nigeria, 2014.

Yusuf I, Mohammed AZ, Iliyasu Y. Histopathological study of soft tissue sarcomas seen in a teaching hospital in Kano, Nigeria. Nigerian J Basic Clinical Sciences. 2013;10(2):70.

Penel N, Grosjean J, Robin YM, Vanseymortier L, Clisant S, Adenis A. Frequency of certain established risk factors in soft tissue sarcomas in adults: a prospective descriptive study of 658 cases. Sarcoma. 2008.

Bhatia K, Shiels MS, Berg A, Engels EA. Sarcomas other than Kaposi sarcoma occurring in immunodeficiency: interpretations from a systematic literature review. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012;24(5):537-46.

Feller L, Wood NH, Lemmer J. HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: pathogenic mechanisms. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007;104(4):521-9.

Gonçalves PH, Uldrick TS, Yarchoan R. HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma and related diseases. AIDS. 2017;31(14):1903-16.

Ng VY, Scharschmidt TJ, Mayerson JL, Fisher JL. Incidence and Survival in Sarcoma in the United States: A Focus on Musculoskeletal Lesions. Anticancer Res. 2013;33(6):2597-604.

Puri A, Gulia A. Management of extremity soft tissue sarcomas. Indian J Orthop. 2011;45(4):301-6.

Gogi AM, Ramanujam R. Clinicopathological Study and Management of Peripheral Soft Tissue Tumours. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(11):2524-6.

Kelly CM, Shahrokni A. Moving beyond Karnofsky and ECOG performance status assessments with new technologies. J Oncology. 2016.

Vlenterie M, Litière S, Rizzo E, Marréaud S, Judson I, Gelderblom H, et al. Outcome of chemotherapy in advanced synovial sarcoma patients: Review of 15 clinical trials from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group; setting a new landmark for studies in this entity. Euro J Cancer. 2016;1(58):62-72.

Cormier JN, Pollock RE. Soft tissue sarcomas. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004;54(2):94-109.

Egas-Bejar D, Huh WW. Rhabdomyosarcoma in adolescent and young adult patients: current perspectives. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2014;5:115-25.

Sultan I, Qaddoumi I, Yaser S, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Ferrari A. Comparing Adult and Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, 1973 to 2005: An Analysis of 2,600 Patients. JCO. 2009;27(20):3391-7.

Stiller CA, Parkint DM. International variations in the incidence of childhood soft‐tissue sarcomas. Paediatric perinatal epidemiology. 1994;8(1):107-19.

Llombart B, Serra-Guillén C, Monteagudo C, López Guerrero JA, Sanmartín O. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a comprehensive review and update on diagnosis and management. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2013;30(1):13-28.

Farid M, Demicco EG, Garcia R, Ahn L, Merola PR, Cioffi A, et al. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors. Oncologist. 2014;19(2):193-201.

Abudu EK, Akinde OR, Oyebadejo TO, Efunshile AM, Musa OA, Banjo AF. Histopathological study of soft tissue malignancies in a teaching hospital, Sagamu, South-West Nigeria. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2010;20(1):42-5.

Borislava L N, Dugandžija T, Salma S, Trifunović J, Vojnović D. Some epidemiological characteristics of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the Province of Vojvodina. Archive Oncology. 2005;13.

Gilbert NF, Cannon CP, Lin PP, Lewis VO. Soft-tissue sarcoma. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17(1):40-7.

Daigeler A, Zmarsly I, Hirsch T, Goertz O, Steinau H-U, Lehnhardt M, et al. Long-term outcome after local recurrence of soft tissue sarcoma: a retrospective analysis of factors predictive of survival in 135 patients with locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma. British J Cancer. 2014;110(6):1456.

Adewuyi SA, Oguntayo AO, Samaila MOA, Akuyam SA, Adewuyi KR, Igbinoba F. Sociodemographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of 249 elderly cancer patients seen at the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Archives Inter Surg. 2016;6(1):22.