Comparative assesment of accuracy of IOPA and CBCT for maxillary molar furcation involvement: a clinical and radiological study

Mohammed Fahad Parvez, Nandini Manjunath, Raghavendra Kini


Background: Radiographs in periodontics will provide a two-dimensional image of a three-dimensional object and this leads to problems in terms of validity, accuracy and precision. Hence, the study was conducted with an aim to assess the accuracy of IOPA And CBCT for Maxillary Molar Furcation involvement by clinical and radiological methods.

Methods: The study sample consisted of 17 subjects from the Out patient Department of A.J. Institute of Dental Science, Manglore belonging to both sexes and with age ranging from 35-55 years. The selected patients were those having presence of periodontal pockets of >5-6mm and advanced periodontal disease requiring surgical intervention. For the purpose of standardization, 3 sites of the maxillary first molars were assessed-Mid-buccal, Mesio-buccal, Disto-buccal. Iopa and CBCT measurements were taken which was followed by surgical intervention during which probing measurements were recorded. Statistical analysis was done using ‘unpaired t test’.

Results: There was no statistically significant difference between CBCT measurements and surgical measurements (p≤0.05).

Conclusions: CBCT accurately reproduced the clinical measurement of periodontal bone defects.


Alveolar bone loss, Chronic periodontitis, Cemento-enamel junction, Cone beam computed tomography

Full Text:



Newman, Takei, Klokkevold, Carranza. Periodontal pathogenesis. Carranza’s clinical periodontology. 2012;1(11):260-290.

Indurkar MS, Verma R. Evaluation of the prevalence and distribution of bone defects associated with chronic periodontitis using cone beam computed tomography. A radiographic study J interdisciplinary Dentistry. 2016;6(3):104.

Vandenberghe B, Jacobs R, Yang J. Detection of periodontal bone loss using digital intraoral and cone beam computed tomography images: an in vitro assessment of bony and/or infrabony defects. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2008;37:252-60.

AH du Bois, B Kardachi, PM Bartold. Is there a role for the use of volumetric cone beam computed tomography in periodontics? Aust Dental J. 2012;57(1):103-8.

Mengel R, Candir M, Shiratori K, Flores-de-Jacoby L. Digital volume tomography in the diagnosis of periodontal defects: an in vitro study on native pig and human mandibles. J Periodontol. 2005;76(5):665-73.

Lang NP, Hill RW. Radiographs in periodontics. J Clin Periodontol. 1977;4(1):16-28.

Benn DK. A review of the reliability of radiographic measurements in estimating alveolar bone changes. J Clin Periodontol. 1990;17:14-21.

Hausmann E. Radiographic and digital imaging in periodontal practice. J Periodontol. 2000;71:497-503.

Mohan R, Singh A, Gundappa M. Three-dimensional imaging in periodontal diagnosis- Utilization of cone beam computed tomography. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011;15:11-7.

Tyndall DA, Rathore S. Cone beam CT diagnostic applications: caries, periodontal bone assessment and endodontic applications. Dent Clin North Am. 2008;52:825-41.

Yoshinuma N, Goke E, Arai Y, Shinoda K. Clinical application of a new compact computed tomography system for evaluating the outcome of regenerative therapy: A case report. J Periodontol. 2001;72:696-702.

Mol A, Balasundaram A. In vitro cone beam CT imaging of periodontal bone. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2008;37:319-24.

Ganz SD. Conventional CT and cone beam CT for improved dental diagnostics and implant planning. Dent Implantol Update. 2005;16:89-95.

Lindhe J, Karring T, Araujo M. The anatomy of periodontal tissues. Clinical periodontology implant dentistry. 2015;2(6):3-49.

Shah MA, Shah SS, Dave DH. CBCT-a positive amelioration in periodontics. NJIRM 2013;4(3):144-8.

Banodkar AB, Gaikwad RP, Gunjikar TU, Lobo TA. Evaluation of accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for measurement of periodontal defects: A clinical study. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2015;19(3):285.

Jeffcoat MK. Current concepts in periodontal disease testing. J Am Dent Assoc. 1994;125:1071-8.

Reddy MS. Radiographic methods in the evaluation of periodontal therapy. J Periodontol. 1992;63:1071-8.

Mol A. Imaging methods in periodontology. Periodontol. 2004;34:34-48.

Songa VM, Jampani ND, Babu V, Buggapati L, Mittapally S. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography in diagnosis and treatment planning of periodontal bone defects: A case report. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(12):23-5.

Vieira Feijó C, Granjeiro Feitosa de Lucena J, Mitsuo Kurita L, da Silva Pereira SL. Evaluation of cone beam computed tomography in the detection of horizontal periodontal bone defects: an in vivo study. Int J Perio Rest Dent. 2012;32:162-8.

Pour DG, Romoozi E, Shayesteh YS. Accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Detection of Bone Loss. J dentistry (Tehran, Iran). 2015;12(7):513.

Vandenberghe B, Jacobs R, Yang J. Diagnostic validity (or acuity) of 2D CCD versus 3D CBCT- images for assessing periodontal breakdown. Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Radiol and Endod. 2007;104(3):395-401.

Grimard BA, Hoidal MJ, Mills MP, Mellonig JT, Nummikoski PV, Mealey BL. Comparison of clinical, periapical radiograph, and cone-beam volume tomography measurement techniques for assessing bone level changes following regenerative periodontal therapy. J Periodontol. 2009;80:48-55.

Patel S, Dawood A, Mannocci F, Wilson R, Pitt Ford T. Detection of periapical bone defects in human jaws using cone beam computed tomography and intraoral radiography. Int Endod J. 2009;42(6):507-15.

Misch KA, Yi ES, Sarment DP. Accuracy of cone beam computed tomography for periodontal defect measurements. J Periodontol. 2006;77:1261-6.