DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20160042

Retention of case-based learning on infectious diseases by third-year medical students

Kartikeyan S., Aniruddha A. Malgaonkar

Abstract


Background: Undergraduate medical students infrequently see a variety of cases of infectious diseases during their batch-wise rotatory clinical postings. Traditional didactic teaching resulted in lack of learner-centred teaching, lack of in-depth knowledge and less retention of learning. The main aim and objective of this complete-enumeration, before-and-after study (without controls) is to employ case-based learning (CBL) as an adjunct to traditional didactic lectures (TDL) for teaching infectious diseases to third-year undergraduate medical students to study the retention of knowledge by comparing the cognitive domain scores in pre- and post-tests.

Methods: After obtaining ethical permissions and written informed consent, TDLs were delivered to give a preview on ten topics (selected by lottery system from topics in syllabus) and a pre-test was conducted after TDL. After pre-test, CBL sessions were conducted jointly by two facilitators (using identical CBL modules) in two randomly-assigned sub-groups (n=28) to enable discussion. After CBL, two post-tests (identical to pre-test) were conducted at intervals of one and six months to determine the levels of retention of learning.

Results: The differences in the student-wise and question-wise scores in the pre-test and one-month post-test and that between the pre-test and six-month post-test were highly significant. However, the difference between the mean scores in one-month and six-month post-test were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: CBL modules using case scenarios were found to enable learning. The marginal differences between the scores in the one-month and six-month post-tests indicate that a single post-test administered six months after the educational intervention (CBL) would be adequate.


Keywords


Case-based learning, Retention of learning, Cognitive domain

Full Text:

PDF

References


Knowles MS. The Adult Learner: a neglected species. 4th edition. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing. 1990:57.

Subramanian A, Timberlake M, Mittakanti H, Lara M, Brandt ML. Novel educational approach for medical students: improved retention rates using interactive medical software compared with traditional lecture-based format. Jour Surg Educ. 2012;69(2):253-6.

Hansen WF, Ferguson KJ, Sipe CS, Sorosky J. Attitudes of faculty and students toward case-based learning in the third-year obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(2):644-7.

Pearson TA, Barker WH, Fisher SG, Trafton SH. Integration of the case-based series in population-orientated prevention into a problem-based medical curriculum. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(4):102-7.

Kassebaum D, Averbach R, Fryer G. Student preference for a case-based vs. lecture instructional format. J Dent Educ. 1991;55(12):781-4.

Srinivasan M, Wilkes M, Stevenson F, Nguyen T, Slavin S. Comparing problem-based learning with case-based learning: effects of a major curricular shift at two institutions. Acad Med. 2007;82(1):74-82.

Lindqvist S, Duncan A, Shepstone L, Watts F, Pearce S. Case-based learning in cross-professional groups – the development of a pre-registration interprofessional learning programme. J Interprof Care. 2005;19(5):509-20.

Rosenstand CAF. Case-based learning. In: Seel NM (Ed.). Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. New York, NY: Springer US. 2012:503-506.

Dean AG, Sullivan KM, Soe MM. OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health, Version 3.03a. Accessed Online from 2015.

Driscoll MP. Psychology of Learning. 2nd edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 2000:448

Wisher RA, Sabol MA, Ellis JA. Staying Sharp: Retention of Military Knowledge and Skills. Arlington, Virginia: US Army Research Institute for Social and Behavioral Research. Special Report 39. 1999.

Lombardi MM. Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview. Educause learning initiative. Oblinger DG (Ed.). ELI Paper 1: 2007. Accessed Online from 2015.

Garvey MT, O’Sullivan M, Blake M. Multidisciplinary case-based learning for undergraduate students. Eur J Dent Educ. 2000;4(4):165-8.

Hay PJ, Katsikitis M. The ‘expert’ in problem-based and case-based learning: necessary or not? Med Educ. 2001;35(1):22-6.

Bransford JD, Brown AL, Cocking RR (Eds.) How people learn – mind, brain, experience and school. Washington DC: National Academy Press. 2000: 218. Accessed online from 2015.

Sawyer RK. Introduction: The New Science of Learning. In: R. K. Sawyer (Ed.). The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2006:1-16.