Published: 2018-05-25

Treatment compliance and retention in care among out-patient clients in a tertiary health institution in plateau state North Central Nigeria

Tolulope O. Afolaranmi, Zuwaira I. Hassan, Joy L. Mbak, Davou W. Luka, Takzhir N. Audu, Oluwabunmi O. Chirdan, Ayuba I. Zoakah


Background: Compliance with prescribed treatment and retention in care are key components in the management of chronic diseases which is vital in averting the long term complications that could arise from such conditions. Failure to comply with treatment recommendations is often associated with poor retention in care. In view of this, this study was conducted to determine the level of treatment compliance and retention in care among patients with hypertension and diabetes in Jos University Teaching Hospital.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among 290 eligible respondents between September and November 2017 using quantitative method of data collection. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis with adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval used as point and interval estimates while p-value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 54.5±13.1 years with 43.8% of the respondents found to have satisfactorily complied with prescribed treatment while 117 (40.3%) were uninterruptedly retained in care within the last 6 months' clinic appointments  prior to the study.

Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the levels of compliance with treatment and retention in care bringing to bear the need to provide structured interventions targeted at attaining improvement in compliance with treatment and retention in care among individuals on long term care.


Diabetes, Hypertension, Retention in care, Treatment compliance

Full Text:



Blomfield GS, Wang TY, Boulware LE, Califf RM, Hernadez AF, Velazquez EJ, Implementation of Management Strategies for Diabetes and Hypertension: from local to Global Health in Cardiovascular Diseases. Heart. 2015;10(1):31-8.

Valarie B. Health law. Am Med Ass J Ethics. 2012;14(5):403-6.

Jin J, Sklar GE Oh VMS, Li SC. Factors affecting therapeutic compliance: A review from the patient’s perspective. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2008;4(1):269-86.

Mallion JM, Schmitt D. Patient compliance in the treatment of arterial hypertension. European Society Hypertension Scientific Newsletter.2001;2:7.

Habib SH, Saha S. Burden of non-communicable diseases. Global overview. 2010;4(1):41-7.

Oluwole AB, Olujide JO, Oladele AA, David SE, Adebusuyi OO, Temitope OO, et al. Seven-year review of retention in HIV care and treatment in federal medical centre Ido-Ekiti. Pan African Med J. 2015;22:139-41.

Kabir M, Iliyasu Z, Abubakar IS, Jibril M. Compliance to medication among hypertension patients in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. J Commu Med Pri Health Care. 2004;16(1):16-20.

Forough R, Naima SF, Ella D, Christina MJ, Mahnaz M. Compliance to treatment in patients with chronic illness: A concept exploration. Iranian J Nursing Midwifery Res. 2014;19(2):159-67.

Dunbar-Jacob J, Mortimer-Stephens MK. Treatment adherence in chronic disease. J Clinical Epidemiology. 2001;54:57-60.

Axelsson M, Brink E, Lundgren J, Lotvall J. The influence of personality traits on reported adherence to medication in individuals with chronic disease: An epidemiological study in West Sweden. PloS One. 2011;6(18):241-4.

Wild S, Roglic G, Greens A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(5):1047-53.

Engelgau M, Rosenhouse S, El-Saharty S, Mahal A. The economic effect of non-communicable diseases on households and nations: a review of existing evidence. J Health Commun. 2011;16(2):75-81.

Bello DA, Afolaranmi TO, Hassan ZI, Ogbonna FC, Inedu PG, Ejiga C, et al. Knowledge and use of oral rehydration solution in the home management of diarrhea among mothers of under fives in Jos, Plateau State. International J Biomed Res. 2017;8(01):33-37.

Ibrahim T. Sample size determination. In: research methodology and dissertation writing for health and allied health professionals. 1st Ed. Abuja, Nigeria: Cress global link limited;2009:75-77.

Pauline EO, Benard EO. Factors associated with treatment compliance in hypertension in Southwest Nigeria. J Heal, Popu Nutri. 2011;29(6):619-28.

Akintunde AA, Akintunde TS. Antihypertensive medications adherence among Nigerian hypertensive subjects in a specialist clinic compared to a general outpatient clinic. Annals Med Heal Sci Res. 2015;5(3):173-8.

Akpa MR, Agomuoh DI, Odia OJ. Drug compliance among hypertensive patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nigerian J Medicine: J National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria. 2005;14(1):55-7.

Nnodimele OA, Olarewaju MF, Akinbolajo O. Treatment adherence and risk of non-compliance among hypertensive at a teaching hospital in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria. Acta SATECH. 2010;3(2):143-9.

Abdulazeez FI, Omole M, Ojulari SL. Medication compliance amongst diabetic patients in Ilorin, Nigeria. J Dental Med Sci. 2014;13(3):96-9.

Chythra RR, Veena GK, Avinash S, Asha K. Treatment compliance among patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a costal population of Southern India. Inter J preventive medicine. 2014;5(8):992-8.

Osamor PE, Owumi BE. Factors associated with treatment compliance in hypertension in Southwest Nigeria. J Health, Population and Nutrition. 2011;29(6):619-28.

Nwaokoro JC, Okokon BE, Nwaokoro AA, Emerole CO, Ibe SN, Onwuliri VA, et al. Problems associated with treatment compliance among type 2 diabetic patients at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Afr J Diabetes Med. 2014;22(1):24-6.

Nadia MT, Magda AE, Bahia GA. Factors affecting compliance of diabetic patients toward therapeutic management. Medical J Cairo University. 2011;79(1):211-8.

Ramil A, Ahmad NS, Paraidathathu T. Medication adherence among hypertensive patients of primary health clinics in Malaysia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2012;6:613-22.