Published: 2018-06-25

Testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Satish Chaudhary, Madan Kaushik, V. M. S. Jaswal, Rajeev Raina, Roshan Thakur, Manish Kumar Thakur, Ritin Sharma


Background: To study testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus in age group of 30-50 years.

Methods: In this cross sectional study of 193 type 2 diabetes men aged between 30-50 years, total and free testosterone levels were calculated along with other relevant clinical variables like hypertension, BMI, dyslipidemia, peripheral neuropathy, retinopathy.

Results: The study group had study out of 193 patients 34.7% have low total testosterone levels, 29.53% have low free testosterone levels and 23.3% have both low and free testosterone levels. Maximum number of patients with low total testosterone levels were in the age group between 46-50 years (41.0%) and with low free total testosterone levels were in the age group between 36-40 years (41.8%).

Conclusions: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with low levels of total and free testosterone. Obesity and dyslipidemia are also associated with low testosterone levels.


Diabetes, Testosterone

Full Text:



Powers AC. Diabetes mellitus: diagnosis, classification, and pathophysiology. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. 2015:2399-407.

Oh JY, Barrett CE, Wedick NM, Wingard DL. Endogenous sex hormones and the development of type 2 diabetes in older men and women: the Rancho Bernardo study. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:55-60.

Kapoor D, Malkin CJ, Channer KS, Jones TH. Androgens, insulin resistance and vascular disease in men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;63:239-50.

Corona G, Mannucci E, Petrone L, Ricca V, Balercia G, Mansani R, et al. Association of hypogonadism and type II diabetes in men attending an outpatient erectile dysfunction clinic. Int J Impot Res. 2006;18:190-7.

Svartberg J. Epidemiology: testosterone and the metabolic syndrome. Int J Impot Res. 2007;19:124-8.

Zitzman M, Faber S, Nieschlag E. Association of specific symptoms and metabolic risks with serum testosterone in older men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:4335-43.

Kalyani RR, Dobs AS. Androgen deficiency, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome in men. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2007;14:226-234.

Al Hayek AA, Khader YS, Jafal S, Khawaja N, Robert AA, Ajlouni K. Prevalence of low testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study. J famil community Med. 2013 Sep;20(3):179-86.

Kapoor D, Aldred H, Clark S, Channer KS, Jones TH. Clinical and biochemical assessment of hypogonadism in men with type 2 diabetes: correlations with bioavailable testosterone and visceral adiposity. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:911-7.

Harman SM. Testosterone in older men. Climacteric. 2005;8:124-35.

Morley JE, Charlton E, Patrick P, Kaiser FE, Cadeau P, McCready D, Perry H. Validation of a screening questionnaire for androgen deficiency in aging males. Meta Clin Exp. 2000;49(9):1239-42.

Dhindsa S, Prabhakar S, Sethi M, Bandyopadhyay A, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P. Frequent occurrence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5462-8.

Kapoor D, Clarke S, Channer KS, and Jones TH. Erectile dysfunction is associated with low bioactive testosterone levels and visceral adiposity in men with type 2 diabetes. Int J Androl. 2007;30:500-7.

Grossmann M, Thomas MC, Panagiotopoulos S, Sharpe K, Macisaac RJ, Clarke S, et al. Low testosterone levels are common and associated with insulin resistance in men with diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1834-40.

Haffner SM, Karhapaa P, Mykkanen L, Laakso M. Insulin resistance, body fat distribution and sex hormones in men. Diabetes. 1994;43:12-9.

Vermeulen A. Decreased androgen levels and obesity in men. Ann Med. 1996;28:13-5.

Cohen PG. Aromatase, adiposity, aging and disease: the hypogonadal-metabolic atherogenic-disease and age connection. Med Hypotheses. 2001;56:702-8.

Tsai EC, Boyko EJ, Leonetti DL, Fujimoto WY: Low serum testosterone level as a predictor of increased visceral fat in Japanese-American men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:485-91.

Bjorntorp P. The regulation of adipose tissue distribution in humans. Int J Obe Relat Metab Disord. 1996;20:291-302.

Phillips GB, Jing TY, Resnick LM, Barbagallo M, Laragh JH, Sealey JE. Sex hormones and hemostatic risk factors for coronary heart disease in men with hypertension. J hypertension. 1993;11(7):699-702.

Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Koch GO, Haley NJ. Downton MI. Testosterone and cigarette smoking in early adolescence. J Behavioural Medicine. 1989;12:407-507.

Halmenschlager G, Rossetto S, Lara GM, Rhoden EL. Evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking on testosterone levels in adult men. J Sex Med. 2009;6:1763-72.

Trummer H, Habermann H, Haas J, Pummer K. Testosterone and cigarette smoking in early adolescence. Human Reproduction. 2001;17:554-1559.

UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) VIII. Study design, progress and performance. Diabetologia. 1991;34:877-9.

Cade WT. Diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular diseases in the physical therapy setting. Phys Ther. 2008;88:1322-35.

Fukui M, Soh J, Tanaka M, Kitagawa Y, Hasegawa G, Yoshikawa T, et al. Low serum testosterone concentration in middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes. Endo J. 2007;54.

Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, Matsumoto AM, Snyder PJ, Swerdloff RS, et al. Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endo Meta. 2006 Jun 1;91(6):1995-2010.

Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, et al. Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2536-59.