The assessment of risk factors, lipid profile, uric acid and alanine aminotransferase in Helicobacter pylori-positive subjects

Martin Ernest Ndebi, Yvette Alvine Tonleu Guimtsop, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou


Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastro duodenal ulcer, chronic gastric, MALT lymphoma and gastric cancer but also to coronary heart diseases, ischemic diseases and metabolic diseases like diabetes. The colonization of the stomach by H. pylori causes persistent inflammation of the stomach wall which can influence some biochemical parameters in the patient. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors, uric acid and alanine aminotransferase along with lipid parameters in H. pylori-positive and -negative patients at Dschang District Hospital in Cameroon.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 160 consenting patients of average age 53.91±13.36 years attending the hospital for medical check-up or admitted in the hospital. The determination of anti-H. pylori IgG by the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, enabled us to distinguish two groups of patients. A questionnaire survey was administered to study participants and potential risk factors for H. pylori exposure sought. Measurements of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and activity of alanine aminotransferase were carried out in serum by methods resulting from commercial kits.

Results: The habits of not washing hands after the toilets (OR = 3.33; p = 0.036) and giving of chewed food by the parents to children (OR = 2.26; p = 0.029) were independent risk factors of H. pylori infection. H. pylori infected patients had increased levels of uric acid (p = 0.017), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.021) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p = 0.046) compared to the uninfected group.

Conclusions: Our study therefore suggests that H. pylori infection can cause modifications of lipid parameters and uremia that are considered as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and gout. 


Alanine aminotransferase, Helicobacter pylori infection, Lipid profile, Risk factors, Uric acid

Full Text:



Smruti RS, Krishnamurthy NB, Blessy BM. A Review on recent diseases caused by microbes. J Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014;2:106-15.

Attaf N, Cherkaoui N, Choulli MK, Ghazali L, Mokhtari M. Soulaymani A. Epidemiological profile of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Gharb-Chrarda-Beni Hssen region. Biol Health. 2004;4(1):25-33.

Brown LM. Helicobacter pylori: epidemiology and routes of transmission. Epidemiol Rev. 2000;22:283-97.

Bommelaer G, Stef A. Peptic ulcer: before and after Helicobacter pylori. Clin Gastroenterol Biol. 2009;33(8-9):626-34.

World Gastroenterology Organization (WGO). Helicobacter in developing countries. WGO Practice Guidelines. 2010. Available at:

Suerbaum S, Michetti P. Helicobacter pylori infection. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(15):1175-86.

Andoulo AF, Noah-Noah D, Tagni-Sartre M, Ndjitoyap-Ndam EC, Ngu-Blackett K. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in Yaounde: from peculiarity to enigma. Afr Pan Afr Med J. 2013;16:115.

Mégraud F. Helicobacter pylori infection responsible for extra-digestive conditions myth or reality. Clin Biol Gastroenterol. 2003;27(3):459-66.

Leung WK, Enders KW, Chan FKL, Chung SCS, Sung JJY. Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked immnosorbent assay kits for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in Chinese patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999;34:13-7.

Megraud F, Broutet N. Epidemiology. acquisition and transmission of Helicobacter pylori. Rev Prat Med Gen. 2000;50:1414-7.

Suzuki H, Marshall BJ, Hibi T. Overview: Helicobacter pylori and extragastric disease. Int J Hematol. 2006;84(4):291-300.

Chung GE, Heo NJ, Park MJ, Chung SJ, Kang HY, Kang SJ. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in diabetic patients is associated with microalbuminuria. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(1):97-102.

Niemelä S, Karttunen T, Korhonen T. Läärä E, Karttunen R, Ikäheimo M, et al. Could Helicobacter pylori infection increase the risk of coronary heart disease by modifying serum lipid concentrations? Heart. 1996;75:573-5.

Iscan A, Yigitoglu R, Onag A, Vurgun N, Ari Z, Ertan P, et al. Should children with infection be tested for lipid. lipoprotein and apolipoprotein? Acta Paediatr Jpn. 1998;40(1):47-51.

Hoffmeister A, Rothenbacher D, Bode G, Persson K, Marz W, Nauck MA, et al. Current infection with Helicobacter pylori. but not seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae or cytomegalovirus. is associated with an atherogenic. modified lipid profile. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:427-32.

Zhu J, Quyyumi AA, Muhlestein JB, Nieto FJ, Horne BD, Zalles-Ganley A, et al. Lack of association of Helicobacter pylori infection with coronary artery disease and frequency of acute myocardial infarction or death. Am J Cardiol. 2002;89(2):155-8.

Khairy P, Rinfret S, Tardif JC, Marchand R, Shapiro S, Brophy J. Absence of association between infectious agents and endothelial function in healthy young men. Circulation. 2003;107:1966-71.

Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma. without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:499-502.

De Martel C, Parsonnet J. Helicobacter pylori infection and gender: A meta-analysis of population-based prevalence surveys. Digest Dis Sci. 2006;51(12):2292-301.

Malaty HM. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. Best pra Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2007;21(2):205-14.

Azevedo NF, Huntington J, Goodman KJ. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and public health implications. Helicobacter. 2009;14(1):1-7.

Ogihara A, Kikuchi S, Hasegawa A, Kurosawa M, Miki K, Kaneko E, et al. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and smoking and drinking habits. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000;15(3):271-6.

Fox JG, Beck P, Dangler CA, Whary M, Wang TC, Shi HN, et al. Concurrent enteric helminth infection modulates inflammation and gastric immune responses and reduces helicobacter-induced gastric atrophy. Nat Med. 2000;6:536-42.

Kung KC, Rhee EJ,Ryu SH, Beck SH. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in Korean adults. Inter J Cardiol. 2005;102(3):411-7.

Volanen I, Raitakari OT, Vainionpää R, Arffman M, Aarnisalo J, Anglé S, et al. Serum lipid profiles poorly correlate with Chlamydia pneumonia. Helicobacter pylori and cytomegalovirus seropositivity in prospectively followed-up healthy children. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25:827-32.

Kim HL, Jeon HH, Park IY, Choi JM, Kang JS, Min KW. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly Koreans. J Korean Med Sci. 2011;26(5):654-8.

Gotto Assmann G, Carmena R. The ILIB lipid handbook for clinical practice blood lipids and coronary heart disease. 2nd ed New York. NY International Lipid Information Bureau;2000.

Longo-Mbenza B, Nkondi Nsenga J, Mokondjimobe E, Gombet T, Ngaporo Assori I, Ibara JR, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection is identified as a cardiovascular risk factor in Central Africa. Vas Health Risk Manag. 2012;8:455-61.

Qu C, Qi S, Yang D, Huang H, Zhang J, Chen W, et al. Risk assessment and influence factors of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils of the hill region a case study from Ningde. southeast China. J Geochem Explor. 2015;149:43-51.