DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20183650

Study of prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Raj K. Singh, Mahim Mittal, Amit Singh, Ajay Kumar

Abstract


Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction (TD). The coexistence of thyroid dysfunction in T2DM patient is an important barrier in achieving treatment goal. The study regarding prevalence of TD in T2DM has not been done in patients of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. The present study was aimed to know the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in T2DM in patients of Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

Methods: This is an observational cross sectional prevalence study of thyroid dysfunction in 250 diagnosed T2DM patients deleat diagnosed based on ADA criteria attending the department of medicine Baba Raghav Das Medical College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, Study was India, done over a period of 1 year. Thyroid dysfunction was classified on the basis of ATA criteria. All subjects underwent a detailed history, clinical examination and relevant biochemical tests.

Results: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in T2DM patients was found to be 20.4% in this study.

Conclusions: The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was found to be higher in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in comparison to general population as mentioned in different literature.


Keywords


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Thyroid dysfunction (TD), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronin (T3), Tetraiodothyronin (T4)

Full Text:

PDF

References


ATA/AACE guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults. Endrocr Pract. 2012;18(6).

Silverstein J, Klingensmith G, Copeland K, Plotnick L, Kaufman F, et a. Care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA Statement). Diabetes Care. 2005;28:186-212.

Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010;33 Suppl 1:S62-9.

Garber JR. Woeber for the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Thyroid Association Taskforce on hypothyroidism in adults KA. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid. 2012;22:1200-35.

Perros P, McCrimmon RJ, Shaw G, Frier BM. Frequency of thyroid dysfunction in diabetic patients: value of annual screening. Diabet Med. 1995;12(7):622-7.

Smithson MJ. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in a community population of diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1998;15(2):148-50.

Nobre EL, Jorge Z, Pratas S, Silva C, Castro JJ. Profile of the thyroid function in a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Abstr. 2000;3:298.

Papazafiropouloua A, Sotiropoulosa A, Kokolakia A, Kardaraa M, Stamatakia P, Pappasa S. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among greek type 2 diabetic patients attending an outpatient clinic. J Clin Med Res. 2010;2(2):75-8.

Diez JJ, Iglesias P. An analysis of the relative risk for hypothyroidism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine. 2012 Dec;29(12):1510-4.

Fleiner HF, Bjøro T, Midthjell K, Grill V, Åsvold BO. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in autoimmune and type 2 diabetes: the population-based HUNT study in Norway. J Clin Endocrinol Meta. 2016 Feb 1;101(2):669-77.

Radaideh AR, Nusier MK, Amari FL, Bateiha AE, ElKhateeb MS, Naser AS, et al. Thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan. Saudi Med J. 2004;25(8):1046-50.

Akbar DH, Ahmed MM, Al-Mughales J. Thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity in Saudi type 2 diabetics. Acta Diabetol. 2006;43(1):14.

Demitrost L, Ranabir S. Thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study. Indian J Endocrinol Meta. 2012 Dec;16(Suppl 2):S334.

Uppal V, Vij C, Bedi GK, Vij A, Banerjee BD. Thyroid disorders in patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ind J Clin Biochem. 2013;28(4):336-41.

Mishra S, Mishra S, Behera BK. Thyroid dysfunction in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in eastern India. J Pharma Biomed Sci. 2016;6(05):311-4.

Jain G, Marwaha TS, Khurana A, Dhoat PS. Prevalence of Thyroid disorders in Patients of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. International J Med Dental Sci. 2013 Jul 1;2(2):153-61.

Telwani AA, Wani ZH, Ashraf Y, Shah AA. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case control study. Inter J Res Med Sci. 2017 Sep 28;5(10):4527-31.

Pasupathi P, Bakthavathsalam G, Saravanan G, Sundaramoorthi R. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in the diabetic/non-diabetic population. Thyroid Science. 2008;3(8):1-6.

Udiong CE, Udoh AE, Etukudoh ME. Evaluation of thyroid function in diabetes mellitus in Calabar, Nigeria. Ind J Clin Biochem. 2007 Sep 1;22(2):74-8.

Ravishankar SN, Champakamalini, Venkatesh, Mohsin. A prospective study of thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in general population. iMed Pub J.2013;5(1).

Celani MF, Bonati ME, Stucci N. Prevalence of abnormal thyrotropin concentrations measured by a sensitive assay in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res. 1994;27:15-25.

Vondra K, Vrbikova J, Dvorakova K. Thyroid gland diseases in adult patients with diabetes mellitus. Minerva Endocrinol. 2005;30:217-36.

Pimenta WP, Mazeto GM, Callegaro CF, Shibata SA, Marins LV, Yamashita S, et al. Thyroid disorders in diabetic patients. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia. 2005;49(2):234-40.

Babu K, Kakar A, Byotra SP. Prevalence of thyroid disorder in type II diabetes mellitus patients. J Assoc Phys Ind. 2001;49:43.

Michalek AM, Mahoney MC, Calebaugh D. Hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus in an American Indian population. J Family Practice. 2000;49(7):53-5.

Whitehead C, Lunt H, Pearson JF, Cawood TJ. Is screening for hypothyroidism in the diabetes clinic effective? Practical Diabetes. 2010;27(3):113-7.

Feely J, Isles TE. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in diabetics. Br Med J. 1979;1:1678.

Moulik PK, Nethaji CK, Haleeli AA. Thyroid dysfunction in diabetes: can we justify routine screening? Endocrine abstracts. 2002;3:292.

Johnson JL. Diabetes and thyroid disease: a likely combination. Diabetes Spectrum. 2002;15:140-2.

Proces S, Delgrange E, Vander BTV, Jamart J, Donckier JE. Minor alterations in thyroid function tests associated with diabetes mellitus and obesity in outpatients without known thyroid illness. Acta Clin Belg. 2001;56(2):86-90.

Kouidhi S, Berhouma R, Ammar M, Rouissi K, Jarboui S, Clerget-Froidevaux MS, et al. Relationship of thyroid function with obesity and type 2 diabetes in euthyroid Tunisian subjects. Endocrine research. 2013 May 1;38(1):15-23.

De Pergola G, Ciampolillo A, Paolotti S, Trerotoli P, Giorgino R. Free triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone are directly associated with waist circumference, independently of insulin resistance, metabolic parameters and blood pressure in overweight and obese women. Clinical Endocrinology. 2007;67(2):265-9.