DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20184413

Effect of tocopheryl acetate in neurobehavioral activity of cigarette of smoke exposed swiss albino mice

Supriya K., Janardan Chaudhary

Abstract


Background: Cigarette smoke exposure is well known abuse which impairs neurobehavioral activity by oxidative damage to sensory and motor areas of cerebral cortex. Aim of the present study is to report the effect of tocopheryl acetate on oral administration in impaired neurobehavioral activity of cigarette smoke exposed Swiss albino mice

Methods: Total thirty six adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into six different groups. Group I (n=6, distilled water and standard diet), group II (n=6, tocopheryl acetate induced), group III (n=6, soyabean oil induced as vehicle), group IV (n=6, cigarette smoke exposed), group V (n=6, cigarette smoke expose plus tocopheryl acetate), group VI (n=6, cigarette smoke plus soyabean oil). Frequency of cigarette smoke exposure was 3 times a day for 20 minutes each time and tocopheryl acetate with dose of 200mg/kg/day in 0.3ml of soyabean oil as vehicle orally through oral gavage for 28 days. On 29th day morning, the mice were subjected to perform neurobehavioral test such as open field tests and force swim test. After completion of the test, mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and brain was autopsied to estimate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSR) for oxidative level and histopathological examination of brain.

Results: The treated mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed decreased motor activity in open field test and increased anxiety in force swim tests. On histopathological examination, marked neuronal damage was observed in motor area of cerebral cortex. Oxidative level in neuronal tissue was highly variable by an increased level of MDA (815.2±56.62, p<0.0001) and decreased level of SOD (1.5±0.54, p<0.001) and GSR (0.025±0.007, p<0.001) as compared to control group. Administration of tocopheryl acetate improved the neurobehavioral activity and maintained oxidative level significantly (p <0.0001 in MDA, p <0.001 in SOD and GSR).

Conclusions: Tocopheryl acetate can prevent neuronal damage due to cigarette smoke exposure. Thus, it can be used as a protective agent for neurobehavioral impairment, neuronal cell damage and altered oxidative level occurring in cigarette smokers.


Keywords


Anxiety, Depression, Oxidants/Antioxidant, Neuroprotection, Neuropathogenesis

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking 2015. World Health Organization 2015.

Church DF, Pryor WA. Free-radical chemistry of cigarette smoke and its toxicological implications. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1985 Dec; 64:111.

Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis K. Tobacco smoke: involvement of reactive oxygen species and stable free radicals in mechanisms of oxidative damage, carcinogenesis and synergistic effects with other respirable particles. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2009 Feb 2;6(2):445-62.

Pryor WA, Stone K. Oxidants in cigarette smoke radicals, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrate, and peroxynitrite. Ann New York Acad Sci. 1993 May 1;686(1):12-27.

Cano M, Thimmalappula R, Fujihara M, Nagai N, Sporn M, Wang AL, et al. Cigarette smoking, oxidative stress, the anti-oxidant response through Nrf2 signaling, and age-related macular degeneration. Vision Res. 2010;50(7):652-64.

Lasser K, Boyd JW, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D, Bor DH. Smoking and mental illness: a population-based prevalence study. JAMA. 2000 Nov 22;284(20):2606-10.

Lawrence D, Considine J, Mitrou F, Zubrick SR. Anxiety disorders and cigarette smoking: results from the Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Australian NZ J Psychiatry. 2010 Jan 1;44(6):520-7.

Tobias MI, Templeton R, Collings S. How much do mental disorders contribute to New Zealand's tobacco epidemic?. Tobacco Control. 2008 Jul 31:tc-2008.

Sopori M. Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system. Nature Rev Immunol. 2002 May;2(5):372.

Audrain‐McGovern J, Benowitz N. Cigarette smoking, nicotine, and body weight. Clin Pharmacol Therapeutics. 2011;90(1):164-8.

Pomerleau OF. Nicotine and the central nervous system: biobehavioral effects of cigarette smoking. Am J Med. 1992 Jul 15;93(1):S2-7.

Graybiel AM. Basal ganglia-input, neural activity, and relation to the cortex. Current Opin Neurobiol. 1991;1(4):644-51.

Hikosaka O. Basal ganglia-possible role in motor coordination and learning. Current Opin Neurobiol. 1991;1(4):638-43.

Mink JW, Thach WT. Basal ganglia intrinsic circuits and their role in behavior. Current Opin Neurobiol. 1993;3(6):950-7.

Packer JE, Slater T, Willson R. Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. Nature. 1979;278(5706):737.

Santiago LN, de Camargo Fenley J, Braga LC, Cordeiro JA, Cury PM. The effect of different doses of cigarette smoke in a mouse lung tumor model. Int J Clin Experiment Pathol. 2009;2(2):176.

Devasagayam T, Boloor K, Ramasarma T. Methods for estimating lipid peroxidation: an analysis of merits and demerits. 2003.

Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan P. A modified method for assay of superoxide dismutase. J Biochem Biophys. 1984;21:131-2.

Moylan S, Jacka FN, Pasco JA, Berk M. How cigarette smoking may increase the risk of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders: a critical review of biological pathways. Brain Behavior. 2013;3(3):302-26.

Ali SF, Chandra O, Hasan M. Effects of an organophosphate (dichlorvos) on open field behavior and locomotor activity: correlation with regional brain monoamine levels. Psychopharmacol. 1980;68(1):37-42.

Amos-Kroohs RM, Williams MT, Braun AA, Graham DL, Webb CL, Birtles TS, et al. Neurobehavioral phenotype of C57BL/6J mice prenatally and neonatally exposed to cigarette smoke. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Jan 1;35:34-45.

Swan GE, Lessov-Schlaggar CN. The effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine on cognition and the brain. Neuropsychol Rev. 2007;17(3):259-73.

Malenka R, Nestler E, Hyman S. Chapter 6: widely projecting systems: monoamines, acetylcholine, and orexin. Sydor A, Brown RY Molecular Neuropharmacology: a foundation for clinical neuroscience. 2009:147-8.

Taylor KM, Snyder SH. Differential effects of D-and L-amphetamine on behavior and on catecholamine disposition in dopamine and norepinephrine containing neurons of rat brain. Brain Res. 1971;28(2):295-309.

Fiscus R, Vanmeter W, Editors. Effects of parathion on turnover and endogenous levels of norepinephrine (Ne) and dopamine (Da) in rat-brain. federation proceedings; 1977: Federation Amer Soc Exp Biol 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Md 20814-3998 Usa.

Kalmijn S, Van Boxtel MP, Verschuren MW, Jolles J, Launer LJ. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to cognitive performance in middle age. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Nov 15;156(10):936-44.