DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20184040

A study of anaemia and its correlates among adolescent girls in schools of Haldwani, India

Neha Goyal, C. M. S. Rawat

Abstract


Background: Anaemia, a manifestation of under nutrition and poor dietary intake of iron is a public health problem, not only among pregnant women, infants and young children but also among adolescents. Anaemia among adolescent girls can result in impaired physical growth, poor cognition, reduced physical fitness and work performance and lower concentration on daily tasks.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in schools of Haldwani, Uttarakhand, India with the objective studying various socio-demographic characteristics in relation to anaemia among adolescent girls. Multistage random sampling was used to select adolescent girls of 10 to 19 years of age who were interviewed and examined. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and Odds ratios calculated with SPSS v21.

Results: Around 371 girls in present study had varying severity of anaemia and majority had mild to moderate anaemia. Place of residence, type of school, birth order, type of family and mother occupation were significantly associated with presence of anaemia. Girls taking mixed diet were 1.23 times more likely to be non-anaemic as compared to girls taking vegetarian diet. Study showed adolescent girls consuming IFA tablets were less likely anaemic compared to those not consuming (OR=0.09, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Among school going adolescent girls nearly half are still suffering from anaemia in India, despite the efforts of government and it is still a challenging public health problem.


Keywords


Anaemia, Adolescent girls, Haemoglobin, Malnutrition

Full Text:

PDF

References


McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I, Wojdyla D, de Benoist B. Worldwide prevalence of anemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993-2005. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12:444-54.

Kapil U, Gupta A. Can we eliminate anaemia from India? Indian J Comm Health. 2018;30;Supp:01-03.

Government of India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi. RKSK Strategy Handbook;2014:36.

Government of India. Guidelines for Control of Iron Deficiency Anaemia. National iron plus initiative towards infinite potential in an anaemia free India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare;2013:1.

Government of India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Family Health Survey-4, State Fact Sheet Uttarakhand;2015-16:4. Available from: http://rchiips.org/NFHS/pdf/NFHS4/UT_FactSheet.pdf.

Lewis SM, Stott GJ, Wynn KJ. An inexpensive and reliable new haemoglobin colour scale for assessing anaemia. J Clin Pathol. 1998;51:21-4.

WHO. Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2011. (WHO/NMH/N HD/MNM/11.1) Available from: http://www.who.int/vmnis/indicators/haemoglobin.pdf.

Yadav K, Olivia M J, Ahmed F, Mandal M, Kant S. Use of Point of Care Testing (POCT) in measurement of haemoglobin. Indian J Comm Health. 2017;30(1):72-9.

Siva P M, Sobha A, Manjula V D. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated risk factors among adolescent girls. J Clinical Diag Res. 2016;10(11):19-23.

Singla N, Aggarwal R, Singla P, Jain R. Socio-demographic Correlates of Anaemia among Adolescent Girls in Rural Area of District Ludhiana (Punjab). CJAST. 2018;27(3):1-6.

Upadhye JV, Upadhye JJ. Assessment of anaemia in adolescent girls. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2017;6:3113-7.

Verma R, Kharb M, Yadav SP, Chaudhary V, Ruchi A. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescents under ibsy in rural block of a dist. Of northern India. Int J Social Sci Interdisciplinary Res. 2013;2(9):95-106.

Deshpande NS, Karva D, Agarkhedkar S, Deshpande S. Prevalence of anaemia in adolescent girls and its co-relation with demographic factors. Int J Med Public Health. 2013;3:235-9.

Bindra V. Anemia in adolescence. World J Anemia. 2017;1(1):18-9.

Tesfaye M, Yemane T, Adisu W, Asres Y, Gedefaw L. Anaemia and iron deficiency among school adolescents: burden, severity, and determinant factors in southwest Ethiopia. Adolescent Health, Medicine Therapeutics. 2015;6:189-96.

Balci YI, Karabulut A, Gürses D, Çövüt IE. Prevalence and risk factors of anaemia among adolescents in Denizli, Turkey. Iranian J Pedia. 2012;22(1):77-81.

Mistry SK, Jhohura FT, Khanam F, Akter F, Khan S, Yunus FM, et al. An outline of anemia among adolescent girls in Bangladesh: findings from a cross-sectional study. BMC hematology. 2017 Dec;17(1):13.

Patel S, Dhuppar P, Bhattar A. Nutritional Anemia Status in Adolescent Girls in Rural Schools of Raipur, India. Med Chem (Los Angeles). 2017;7:853-6.

Premalatha T, Valarmathi S, Srijayanth P, Sundar JS, Kalpana S. Prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among adolescent school girls in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Epidemiol. 2012;2:2.

Pattnaik S, Patnaik L, Kumar A, Sahu T. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in a rural area of Odisha and its epidemiological correlates. Indian J Maternal Child Health. 2012;15(1).

Biradar SS, Biradar SP, Alatagi AC, Wantamutte AS, Malur PR. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls: a one year cross-sectional study. J Clin Diag Res. 2012;6(3):372-7.

Siddharam SM, Venketesh GM, Thejeshwari HL. A study of anemia among adolescent girls in rural area of Hassan district, Karnataka, South India. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):922-4.

Kulkarni MV, Durge PM, Kasturwar NB. Prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls in an urban slum. National J Community Med. 2012;3(1).

Sachan B, Idris MZ, Singh A. Effect of socio-demographic characteristics on the prevalence of anemia among school going adolescent girls in Lucknow district, India. South East Asia J Public Health. 2012;2(1):8-12.

Dutt R, Patil S, Joshi S, Mhatre R. Ramdev. Prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls in rural area of Raigad district Maharashtra. Indian J PrevSoc Med. 2009;40:143-6.

Srivastava A, Kumar R, Sharma M. Nutritional anaemia in adolescent girls: an epidemiological study. Int J Community Med Public Health 2016;3:808-812.

Chauhan A, Meena JK, Singh MM, Kishore J, Ingle GK. Socio-demographic profile and compliance to Weekly Iron Folic Acid supplementation among adolescent girls in Central Delhi. Indian J Community Health. 2015;27(Supp 1).

Deshmukh PR, Garg BS, Bharambe MS. Effectiveness of weekly supplementation of iron to control anaemia among adolescent girls of Nashik, Maharashtra, India. J Health Popul Nutr. 2008;26(1):74-8.