Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in rural area of Amravati District of Maharashtra, India

Vinod R. Wasnik, Ajay K. Jawarkar


Background: Hypertension is responsible for 57% of stroke deaths and 24% of coronary heart disease deaths in India. Cardiovascular disease will be the largest cause of death and disability in India by 2020. Hypertension is emerging as a major health problem. The prevalence of hypertension has increased in rural people. The objectives were to find the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in rural area of Amravati District and to study association between various factors and hypertension in a rural area.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was carried out in rural community. 792 study subjects aged 10 years and above were selected using systematic random sampling. A structured pretested schedule was used to collect data regarding demographic characteristics and blood pressure pattern. Mean, Standard Deviation, Chi- square test and ANOVA were used to analyze data.

Results: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was found to be 55.8% and 13.4% respectively. The mean systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure patterns were found to be higher with the increase in age. Older age and increased body mass index were significantly higher among hypertensive compared to normotensive. Factors like tobacco use and alcohol were significantly associated with hypertension.

Conclusions: The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was found to be high in rural Amravati.



Prevalence, Pre hypertension, Hypertension, Rural study, Screening

Full Text:



Rao DP, Sigamani MA. Prevalence, risk factors and awareness of hypertension in India: a systematic review. Journal of Human Hypertension. 2013;27,281-7.

Garg KA, Kanandaliyanage RA. Hypertension in the South-East Asia region: an overview. Regional Health Forum. 2013;17:7-14.

Campbell MS, Chockalingam NA. Time to effectively address hypertension in India. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2013;131:627-31.

El-Din AZS. Erfan M. Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in a sample of Egyptian adults and its relation to obesity. Australian Journal of Basic and applied Sciences. 2013;6(13):481-9.

Patel V, Chatterji S, Chisholm D, Ebrahim S, Gopalakrishna G, Mathers C. Chronic diseases and injuries in India. Lancet. 2011;377:413-28.

Reddy SS, Prabhu GR. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults in an urban slum, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2005;30:84-6.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Rodgers A, Lawes C, MacMahon S. Reducing the global burden of blood pressure related cardiovascular disease. J Hypertens. 2000;18:S3-6.

Verma M, Rajput M, Swaroop S. Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Association with Different Anthropometric Variables Among Adults In Rural Areas Of North India; International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2015;4,(5):1775-83.

Gupta Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 Report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560-72.

Greenlund KJ, Croft JB, Mensah GA. Prevalence of heart disease and stroke risk factors in persons with prehypertension in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2113-8.

JNC VII Express: Prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. In: guidelines /hypertension/express.pdf. 2003. Accessed on 15th November 2009.

World Health Organization: Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry: WHO Tech Rep Series. 1995;854:424-38.

The International Classification of underweight, overweight and obesity according to BMI Source: Adapted from WHO, 1995, WHO, 2000 and WHO 2004.

Padmavati S. A meta-analysis-National Heart Institute, New Delhi. Ind Heart J. 2002;54:99-102.

Kumar K, Kothari RP, Kothari K, Garg S, Khandelwal MK, Gupta R. Prevalence of hypertension in an urban and rural area of Jaipur district. International Journal of healthcare and Biomedical Research. 2013;1:120-6.

Vinay KA, Swati M, Rajesh L, Vinod V, Amol G, Choudhari SG. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural community of Central Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health. 2013;2(2);39-45.

Midha T, Idris MZ, Saran RK, Srivastav AK, Singh SK. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in the urban and rural population of North India district. East African Journal of Public Health. 2009;6(3):268-73.

Rao PC, Venkatramana P, Annaiah P, Reddy PC. Prevalence and predictors of hypertension in an ethnic population of South India. Anthropologist. 2013;15:193-7.

Madhukumar S, Gaikwad V, Sudeepa D. An epidemiological study of hypertension and its risk factors in rural population of Bangalore rural district. Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012;3:264-70.

Thrift AG, Evans RG, Kalyanram K, Kartik K, Fitzgerald SM, Srikant V. Gender-specific effects of caste and salt on hypertension in poverty: A population based study. Journal of Hypertension. 2011;29(3):443-50.

Ghosh A, Sarkar D, Mukherji B, Pal R. Prevalence and risk correlates of hypertension among adult rural population of Bihar. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013;6:71-5.

Parekh A, Parekh M, Vadasmiya D, Kumar A. Study of prehypertension and hypertension in rural area of Vadodara district. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health. 2012;2(1):117-20.

Basu G, Biswas S. Epidemiology of Hypertension and its risk factors in a village of West Bengal. Indian Journal of research and reports in Medical Sciences. 2013:3.

Yuvaraj BY, Nagendra GMR. Umakantha AG. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in rural area of Davanagere. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2010;35(1):138-41.

Bhardwaj SD, Umesh S, Mamta S, Jyoti KR, Prakash BR. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among people above 15 years in rural area of Nagpur, Maharashtara- A cross-sectional study. National Journal of Community Medicine. 2012;3(2):213-7.

Pooja & Mittal Y. Prevalence of hyertension among rural population of Doiwala Block, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Recent Research in Science and Technology. 2013;5(1):21-4.

Meshram II, Laxmaiah A, Mallikharjun RK, Arlappa N, Balkrishna N, Reddy CG. Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates among Adult Tribal Population (≥ 20 years) of Maharashtra state, India. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research. 2014;4(1):130-9.

Manimunda SP, Sugunan AP, Benegal V, Balakrishna N, Rao MV, Pesala KS. Association of hypertension with risk factors and hypertension related behaviour among the aboriginal Nicobarese tribe living in car Nicobar Island, India. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2011;133:287-93.

Malhotra P, Kumari S, Kumar R, Sharma BK. Prevalence of hypertension in an unindustrialized rural population of North India. Journal of Human Hypertension. 1999;13:467-72.

Bhardwaj SD, Sinha U, Shewte MK, Khadse JR, Bhatkule P. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment And Control Of Hypertension Among The People Above 15 Years in Rural Area Nagpur Maharashtra - A Cross Sectional Study. National Journal of Community Medicine. 2012;3,(2):213-21.

Kokiwar PR, Gupta SS, Durge PM. Prevalence of Hypertension in a Rural Community of Central India. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4):950-3.

Hypertension control. Technical Report Series: World Health Organization; 1996. Report No.: 862.

Yadav S, Boddula R, Genitta G, Bhatia V, Bansal B, Kongara S. Prevalence and risk factors of pre-hypertension and hypertension in an affluent north Indian population. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:712-20.

Malhotra P, Kumari S, Kumar R, Jain S, Sharma BK. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension in an un-industrialised rural population of North India. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13(7):467-72.