An observational study on pneumococcal and influenza vaccination status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Rafiq A. Bhat, Saleem A. Wani, Rajat Kharbanda, Sumit Sethi


Background: India has more than sixty million subjects with diabetes. Diabetes confers an increased risk of developing and dying from infectious diseases with an enhanced susceptibility to morbidity, mortality and hospitalizations due to influenza and pneumococcal disease. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends influenza and pneumococcal vaccines for all individuals with diabetes.

Methods: Around 249 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study. All patients were asked a detailed history about diabetes, its duration, type of diabetes and the vaccinations for influenza and pneumococcus, who suggested vaccination and the reasons for declining the vaccination if it had been medically advised. Any other co-morbid condition such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, COPD, hypothyroidism and CKD were noted.

Results: Vaccination rates for influenza in patients aged 50 or more were higher (7.6% of 172 patients) as compared to those aged <50 years (0% of 77); (p=0.013) whereas pneumococcal vaccination rates were 8.1% as against 1.3% (p=0.036) respectively. In males the vaccination rates for influenza were 4.7% compared to females (5.8%); (p=0.675), whereas for pneumococcus the respective vaccination rates were 6.2% for male and 5.8% for female (p=0.903). Vaccination uptake among male and female were almost same. Patients having chronic kidney disease on dialysis were having highest vaccination rate.

Conclusions: The poor vaccination uptake for influenza and pneumococcus in patients with diabetes, calls for intensive efforts aimed at increasing coverage.


Influenza vaccination, Pneumococcal vaccination, Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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