Incidence and prevalence of dermatophytosis in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India


  • Vijayakumar Ramaraj Department of of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, SRU, Chennai 600116
  • Rajyoganandh S Vijayaraman Department of of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, SRU, Chennai 600116
  • Sudha Rangarajan Department of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, SRU, Chennai 600116
  • Anupma Jyoti Kindo Department of of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, SRU, Chennai 600116



Molecular speciation, Internal transcribed spacers, Mva I, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, PCR-RFLP


Background: Dermatophytes are group of fungi that infect keratinized tissues of human and animals. The group consist of three different genera namely, Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton and several species within each genera. Among Trichophyton, Trichophyton rubrum is predominant, followed by various strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which include both anthropophiles and zoophiles. Prevalence of dermatophytes varies with location and environmental condition. The infection is common worldwide with higher prevalence in tropical countries like India. Molecular diagnosis renders accurate identification of clinical dermatophyte isolates to species level. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytoses, isolate and identify the dermatophyte from samples of clinically suspected cases attending tertiary care centre using conventional and molecular methods.

Methods: A total of 210 patients showing lesions typical of dermatophytes infection from outpatient Department of dermatology were sent to mycology unit, Department of Microbiology for the period of April 2011-March 2014 were studied. Diagnosis was confirmed by conventional and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique.

Results: Out of 210 samples received, tinea corporis was the predominant clinical site which was followed by tinea cruris. A total of 143 dermatophytes were isolated from the clinical samples. T. rubrum was the predominant etiological agent with 70/143 isolates and T. mentagrophytes was the second most common with 64/143 isolates. Amplification of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) was successful in all the clinical isolates by PCR and produced species specific banding pattern in RFLP using restriction enzyme Mva I.

Conclusions: Among dermatophytoses, T. rubrum was the predominant etiological agent present in the whole of Chennai District and T. mentagrophytes takes the second place.


Ranganathan S, Menon T, Sentamil GS. Effect of socioeconomic status on the prevalence of dermatophytosis in Madras. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 1995;61:16-8.

Kaufman G, Berdicevsky I, Woodfolk JA, Horwitz BA. Markers for Host-Induced Gene Expression in Trichophyton Dermatophytosis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6584-90.

Nweze EI. Dermatophytosis in Western Africa: a review. Pak J Biol Sci. 2010;13:649-56.

Emmons CW, Binford CH, Utz JP, Kwon-Chung KJ (1974). Medical Mycology. 3rd ed. Philadelpia, Lea and Febiges, pp. 117-167.

Vijayakumar R, Giri S, Kindo AJ. Molecular species identification of candida from blood samples of intensive care unit patients by polymerase chain reaction - Restricted fragment length polymorphism. J Lab Physicians. 2012;4:1-4.

Bhaskaran CS, Rao PS, Krishnamoorthy T, Tarachand P. Dermatophytoses in Tirupathi. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1977;31:251-9.

Maheshwariamma SM, Paniker CKJ, GopinathanT. Studies on dermatomycosis in Calicut. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1982;25:11-7.

Kumar K, Kindo AJ, Kalyani J, Anandan S. Clinico–Mycological Profile of Dermatophytic Skin Infections In A Tertiary Care Center–A Cross Sectional Study. Sri Ramachandra Journal of Medicine. 2007;1(2);12-5.

Venkatesan G, Ranjit Singh AJA, Murugesan AG, Janaki C, Gokul Shankar S. Trichophyton rubrum–the predominant etiological agent in human dermatophytoses in Chennai, India. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2007;1(1);9-12.

Balakumar, Srinivasan. Epidemiology of dermatophytosis in and around Tiruchirapalli, Tamilnadu, India. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2012;2(4):286-9.

Verenkar MP, Pinto MJW, Rodrigues S, Roque WP, Singh I. Clinico-Microbiological study of dermatophytoses. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1991; 34(3):186-92.

Senthamilselvi G, Kamalam A, Thambiah AS. Scenario of chronic dermatophytosis. Mycopathologia. 1998;140:129-35.

Phadke SN. Dermatophytosis in Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh). Indian J Pathol Bacteriol. 1973;16:42.

Stephen S, Rao KNA. Superficial mycoses in Manipal, Indian. J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 1975;41(3):106-10.

Bhardwaj G, Hajini GH, Khan IA, Masood Q, Khosa RK. Dermatophytoses in Kashmir India. Mycoses. 1987;30(3):135-8.

Chinelli PA, Sofiatti Ade A, Nunes RS, Martins JE. Dermatophyte agents in the city of Sao Paulo, from 1992 to 2002. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:259-63.

Fortuno B, Torres L, Simil E, Seoane A, Uriel JA, Santacruz C. Dermatophytes isolated in our clinics, 5-year study in Zaragoza. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 1997;15:536-9.

Suman Singh, Beena PM. Profile of Dermatophyte infections in Baroda. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2003;69:281-3.

Garg A, Venkatesh V, Singh M, Pathak KP, Kaushal GP, Agrawal SK. Onychomycosis in central India: a clinicoetiologic correlation. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43:498-502.

Kannan P, Janaki C, Selvi GS. Prevalence of dermatophytes and other fungal agents isolated from clinical samples. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006;24:212-5.




How to Cite

Ramaraj, V., Vijayaraman, R. S., Rangarajan, S., & Kindo, A. J. (2016). Incidence and prevalence of dermatophytosis in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 4(3), 695–700.



Original Research Articles