Published: 2018-12-26

Description of clinical factors for suicide attempts in a tertiary care hospital of northern part of India

Ravi C. Sharma, Dinesh D. Sharma, Vikesh Gupta, Rahul Gupta, Vineet Kumar, Kushel Verma


Background: Suicide is the result of an act deliberately initiated and performed by a person in the full knowledge or expectation of its fatal outcome. Suicide attempts are a significant public health problem. The present study aimed to explore the variousclinical characteristics of suicideattempters in a tertiary care hospital of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive study among patients with attempted suicide to the department of Psychiatry, Indira Gandhi Medical College (IGMC) Shimla. A structured, self-designed interview schedule and short-form revised Eyseneck personality questionnaire-Hindi (EPQRS-H) was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using Epi info software v 7.2.0.

Results: There were total 77 participants in the study out of which 44 (57.1%) were females. Mean age (Standard deviation) of participants was 30.8 years (9.9 years). Relationship problems were the most common (48.1%) recent life event followed by health events (28.6%). Depression was found to be the most common diagnosis (62.3%). Pesticide consumption was the method of attempting suicide in 72.7% of females compared to 66.7% of males.

Conclusions: Recent major life events especially relationship problems may lead to majority of suicide attempts. There is urgent need to focus on patients suffering from depression by health personnel as well as family members. The sale of the pesticides should be regulated to keep in check the misuse of the same.


Clinical factors, Gender based differences, Psychiatric diagnosis, Pesticide consumption, Suicide attempt

Full Text:



World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2001. Available at:

Rosen DH. The serious suicide attempt: epidemiological and followup study of 886 patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1970;127(6):764-70.

World Health Organization (WHO). Figures and facts about suicide. Genebre: WHO; 1999. Available at: Accessed 04 January 2018.

World Health Organization. Suicide Fact sheet, Updated August 2017. Available at: Accessed 04 January 2018.

National Crime Records Bureau. Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India. New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 2004-2013. Available at: Accessed on 04 January 2018.

Aggarwal S. Suicide in India. British Medical Bulletin. 2015;114:127-34.

Michello C, Lynne FG, Lemyra D. Suicidality: nomenclature. In: Claire MR, Jeffrey LE, editors. Encyclopedia of interpersonal violence. Sage Publications; 2008:701-2.

Constitution of WHO: principles. World Health Organization, Geneva. Available at: Accessed on 21 January 2018.

National Mental Health Programme. Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. Government of India. Available at: NationalMentalHealthProgramme.aspx. Accessed on 21 January 2018.

Halder S, Mahato AK. Socio-demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients who Attempt Suicide: A Hospital based Study from Eastern India. East Asian Arch Psychiatry. 2016;26:98-103.

Owens D, House A. General hospital services for deliberate self-harm. Haphazard clinical provision, little research, no central strategy. J R Coll Physicians Lond. 1994;28:370-1.

Tiwari T, Singh AL, Singh IL. The short-form revised Eysenck personality questionnaire: A Hindi edition (EPQRS-H). Industrial psychiatry J. 2009 Jan;18(1):27.

Li Y, Li Y, Cao J. Factors associated with suicidal behaviors in mainland China: a meta-analysis. BMC public health. 2012 Dec;12(1):524.

Clayton D, Barcel A. The cost of suicide mortality in New Brunswick, 1996. Chronic Dis Can. 1999;20(2):89-95.

Rozanov VA, Mid'ko AA. Personality patterns of suicide attempters: gender differences in Ukraine. Spanish J Psychol. 2011 Nov;14(2):693-700.

Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Suicide. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry: behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. 10th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007:898-907.

Sharma RC. Attempted Suicide in Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Psychiat. 1998;40(1):50-4.

Khan FA, Anand B, Devi MG, Murthy KK. Psychological autopsy of suicide-a cross sectional study. Indian J Psychiatry. 2005;47:73-8.

Srivastava MK, Sahoo RN, Ghotekar LH, Dutta S, Danabalan M, Dutta TK, et al. Risk factors associated with attempted suicide: a case control study. Indian J Psychiatry. 2004;46:33-8.

Mohanty S, Sahu G, Mohanty MK, Patnaik M. Suicide in India: a four year retrospective study. J Forensic Leg Med. 2007;14:185-9.

Patel V, Ramasundarahettige C, Vijayakumar L, Thakur JS, Gajalakshmi V, Gururaj G, Suraweera W, et al. Suicide mortality in India: a nationally representative survey. The Lancet. 2012 Jun 23;379(9834):2343-51.

Rane A, Nadkarni A. Suicide in India: a systematic review. Shanghai Arch Psychiatry. 2014;26:69-80.

Cavanagh JT, Carson AJ, Sharpe M, Lawrie SM. Psychological autopsy studies of suicide: a systematic review. Psychol Med. 2003 Apr;33(3):395-405.

Moscicki E. Epidemiology of suicide. In: Goldsmith S (ed). Risk Factors for Suicide. Summary of a workshop. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001:1-4.