Study of altered platelet morphology with changes in glycaemic status

Mitakshara Sharma, Sanjeev Narang, S. K. Nema


Background: Diabetes is a pandemic causing very high morbidity and mortality due to its complications which are a result of micro and macro angiopathy. Platelets play a key role in the vascular complications. These complications are attributed to platelet activation which can be recognised by an increase in platelet volume indices (PVI) including mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW). Platelet indices can be potentially useful surrogate markers for the early diagnosis of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications in diabetes.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted for 2 years with total 930 subjects. The patients were segregated in 03 groups on basis of HbA1C as (a) Diabetic, (b) Non-Diabetic and (c) FG. Samples for HbA1C and platelet indices were collected using EDTA (ethylene diamine tetracetic acid) as anticoagulant and were processed on autoanalysers.

Results: The study revealed a stepwise increase in the PVI from non-diabetics to IFG to diabetics. MPV and PDW were increased in the IFG cases as compared to the non-diabetic and were markedly increased in the diabetic patients. MPV and PDW of diabetics, IFG and non-diabetics were 17.60±2.04, 11.76±0.73, 9.93±0.64 and 19.17±1.48, 15.49±0.67, 10.59±0.67 respectively with a significant p value 0.00. Significant positive correlation between PVI with glycaemic levels and duration of diabetes across the groups (MPV-HbA1c r = 0.951; PDW-HbA1c r = 0.875). However, the total platelet count was found to decrease with the increasing glycaemic levels with a p value <0.001. A significant negative correlation was found between glycaemic levels and total platelet count (PC- HbA1c r = -0.164).

Conclusions: This study showed that platelet morphology is altered with increasing glycaemic levels. These changes can be known by measurements of PVI which is an important simple and effortless tool can be used more extensively to predict the acute vascular events and thereby help curb morbidity and mortality.



MPV, PDW, PVI, IFG, HbA1C, Diabetes

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