DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20185182

Effect of nutrition on copper and zinc concentrations in human milk

Sharmila M. Mane, Neelam J. Patil, Sachin A. Patharkar, Megha G. Bangar

Abstract


Background: The gross composition of human milk is remarkably constant among women of varying nutritional status. Reliable information is now available on the content, and the principal factor affecting it, of most of the trace elements on human milk. However, for some of the trace elements, there is still a wide variation in reported values in the literature, which is due at least in part, to analytical difficulties. Hence this study was taken up to find out if maternal nutritional status influences the copper and zinc concentrations in colostrum of mother.

Methods: Total of 100 mothers were enrolled in the study after obtaining prior informed consent. They were divided into 2 groups - group I had 50 malnourished mothers and group II had 50 well-nourished mothers. Sample digestion was attempted with different quantities of various acids. Analysis of digested colostrum was carried out for copper and zinc.

Results: The mean levels of copper and zinc were slightly more among well-nourished than malnourished women. Values of copper were significantly higher in the colostrum of well-nourished as compared to that of the malnourished mothers.

Conclusions: The parameters of weight, height weight/height ratio and hemoglobin varied significantly between the well-nourished and malnourished mothers. The difference in milk content of malnourished and well-nourished mothers is not significant for zinc. However, copper levels were significantly higher in well-nourished mothers.


Keywords


Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Malnourished, Well-nourished

Full Text:

PDF

References


Jelliffe DB, Jelliffe EP. The volume and composition of human milk in poorly nourished communities. A review. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Mar 1;31(3):492-515.

Bauer J, Gerss J. Longitudinal analysis of macronutrients and minerals in human milk produced by mothers of preterm infants. Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr 1;30(2):215-20.

Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors. Pediatr Clin. 2013 Feb 1;60(1):49-74.

Manjrekar C, Vishalakshi MP, Begum NJ, Padma GN. Breast feeding ability of undernourished mothers and physical development of their infants during 0-1 year. Indian Pediatr. 1985 Nov 1;22(11):801-9.

Harzer G, Haug M, Dieterich I, Gentner PR. Changing patterns of human milk lipids in the course of the lactation and during the day. The Am J Clini Nutr. 1983 Apr 1;37(4):612-21.

Ali JA, Kader HA, Hassan KH, Arshat HA. Changes in human milk vitamin E and total lipids during the first twelve days of lactation. The Am J Clin Nutr. 1986 Jun 1;43(6):925-30.

Karmarkar MG, Ramakrishnan CV. Studies on human lactation: Relation between the dietary intake of lactating women and the chemical composition of milk with regard to the principle and certain inorganic constituents Acta Paed Scand. 1969;49:599-604.

Chierici R, Saccomandi D, Vigi V. Dietary supplements for the lactating mother: influence on the trace element content of milk. Acta Paediatr. 1999 Sep;88:7-13.

Li JZ, Yoshinaga J, Suzuki T, ABE M, Morita M. Mineral and trace element content of human transitory milk indentified with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. J Nutritional Sci Vitaminol. 1990;36(1):65-74.

Björklund KL, Vahter M, Palm B, Grandér M, Lignell S, Berglund M. Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study. Environment Health. 2012 Dec;11(1):92.

Albert Flynn. Minerals and trace elements in human milk. Adv Food Nutri Res. 1992;36:209-52.

Bates CJ, Prentice A. Breast milk as a source of vitamins, essential minerals and trace elements. Pharmacol Therapeut. 1994 Jan 1;62(1-2):193-220.

Keenan BS, Buzek SW, Garza C, Potts E, Nichols BL. Diurnal and longitudinal variations in human milk sodium and potassium: implication for nutrition and physiology. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982 Mar 1;35(3):527-34.

Krebs NF, Hambidge KM, Jacobs MA, Rasbach JO. The effects of a dietary zinc supplement during lactation on longitudinal changes in maternal zinc status and milk zinc concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Mar 1;41(3):560-70.

Picciano MF, Guthrie HA. Copper, iron, and zinc contents of mature human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Mar 1;29(3):242-54.

Tripathi RM, Raghunath R, Sastry VN, Krishnamoorthy TM. Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products. Sci Total Environm. 1999 Mar 9;227(2-3):229-35.

Raghunath R, Tripathi RM, Sastry VN, Krishnamoorthy TM. Heavy metals in maternal and cord blood. Sci Total Environment. 2000 Apr 24;250(1-3):135-41.

Iyengar GV, Sansoni B. Elemental analysis of biological materials-Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements. Technical Report. IAEA, Vienna. 1980:73-101.

Rodriguez-Palmero M, Koletzko B, Kunz C, Jensen R. Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk: II: lipids, micronutrients, and bioactive factors. Clinics Perinatol. 1999 Jun 1;26(2):335-59.

Hannan MA, Faraji B, Tanguma J, Longoria N, Rodriguez RC. Maternal milk concentration of zinc, iron, selenium, and iodine and its relationship to dietary intakes. Biological Trace Element Res. 2009 Jan 1;127(1):6-15.

Vuori E, Kuitunen P. The concentrations of copper and zinc in human milk: a longitudinal study. Acta Pædiatrica. 1979 Jan;68(1):33-7.

Feeley RM, Eitenmiller RR, Jones Jr JB, Barnhart H. Copper, iron, and zinc contents of human milk at early stages of lactation. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983 Mar 1;37(3):443-8.

Moser PB, Reynold RD. Dietary zinc intake and zinc concentration of plasma, erythrocytes and breast milk in antepartum and postpartum lactating and non lactating women: A longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983Jul;38(1):101-8.

Vaughan LA, Weber CW, Kemberling SR. Longitudinal changes in the mineral content of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1979 Nov 1;32(11):2301-6.

Vuori E, Mäkinen SM, Kara R, Kuitunen P. The effects of the dietary intakes of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc on the trace element content of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Feb 1;33(2):227-31.

Khaghani S, Ezzatpanah H, Mazhari N, Givianrad MH, Mirmiranpour H, Sadrabadi FS. Zinc and copper concentrations in human milk and infant formulas. Iran J Pediatr. 2010 Mar; 20(1):53-7.

Rajalakshmi K, Srikantia SG. Copper, zinc, and magnesium content of breast milk of Indian women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Mar 1;33(3):664-9.

Fransson G, Gabre-Medhin M, Hambreans L. The human milk content of iron, copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium in human milk. J.. Paediatr. 1982;101:504.

Garg M, Thirupuram S, Saha K. Colostrum composition, maternal diet and nutrition in North India. J Trop Pediatr. 1988 Apr 1;34(2):79-87.