Evaluation of risk factors for lower extremity amputation in diabetic foot ulcer: a hospital based observational study in Northern India


  • Bhavkaran Singh Bal Department of Orthopedics, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Gagan Khanna Department of Orthopedics, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Aditya Bhardwaj Department of Orthopedics, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India
  • Kamalpreet Singh Department of Orthopedics, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Amritsar, Punjab, India




Amputation, Diabetes, Foot hygiene, Infection


Background: The present prospective observational study was done to analyse the risk factors leading to minor or major lower extremity amputation (LEA) in diabetic patients.

Methods: A 139 patients were divided into Group A (n=113) and Group B (n=26) who underwent minor and major LEA respectively.

Results: Majority of the patients in group B were from rural and lower socioeconomic background.  Duration of diabetes (p=0.017) and  of DFU was significantly longer in group B (P <0.001) The pro-portion of patients with Wagner Grade 4 and 5  ulcer were significantly higher in group B than in group A (P <0.001) Wound infection and maggots were significantly higher in group B though polymicrobial infection was higher in group A. Biochemical investigations were abnormally altered but difference between two groups was not significant.

Conclusions: Socioeconomic burden on the society due to LEA can be reduced by making diabetic patients aware of foot hygiene, regular medical check-up for control of diabetes and associated complications.


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How to Cite

Bal, B. S., Khanna, G., Bhardwaj, A., & Singh, K. (2019). Evaluation of risk factors for lower extremity amputation in diabetic foot ulcer: a hospital based observational study in Northern India. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 7(4), 1190–1195. https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20191323



Original Research Articles