Oxidative stress and antioxidant vitamins in cataract patients
Keywords:Diabetic cataract, Malondialdehyde, Non-diabetic cataract, Oxidative stress, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E
Background: In Pakistan age related vision disturbances are mainly due to cataract. Various studies have reported relationship of ocular lesion with senile changes and diabetes mellitus resulting in reduced quality of life due to vision. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the process of cataractogenesis. The pathogenesis of the cataract may involve decreased activity of antioxidant scavenging system which includes non-enzymatic natural antioxidants as biomolecules such as carotenoids and vitamins. So, it is planned to investigate the level of serum antioxidant vitamins in diabetic cataract patients and in non-diabetic cataract patients.
Methods: The study was conducted at Biochemistry department, Al-Tibri Medical College Karachi from October 2016 to October 2017. Ninety pre diagnosed cataract patients were selected from Al-Ibrahim Eye Hospital Karachi 40 normal control subjects were selected from the same population with same socioeconomic group. The demographic data was analyzed. The random blood sugar, antioxidant vitamins (C, A and E) and malondialdehyde were analyzed in the blood sample of control and cataract patients. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.
Results: There was no significant difference in the level of vitamin C, A, E and MDA between diabetic and non-diabetic cataract patients, but the blood levels of vitamins of control are higher as compared to the cataract patients. The level of MDA is significantly high in cataract patients as compared to control. Antioxidant vitamin E was negatively correlated with serum malondialdehyde in cataract patients.
Conclusions: It is concluded that in diabetic and non-diabetic cataract low level of serum antioxidant vitamins may be a contributory factor for cataractogenesis.
Liu J, Li J, Li WJ, Wang CM. The role of uncoupling proteins in diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes. 2013;585897.
Vashist P, Talwar B, Gogoi M, Maraini G, Camparini M, Ravindran RD, et al. Prevalence of cataract in an older population in India: the India study of age-related eye disease. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(2):272-8.
Duan XR, Liang YB, Wang NL, Wong TY, Sun LP, Yang XH, et al. Prevalence and associations of cataract in a rural Chinese adult population: The handan eye study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013;251(1):203-12.
Zheng Selin J. Oxidative stress and age-related cataract. Karolinska Institutet; 2015.
Memon AF, Mahar PS, Memon MS, Mumtaz SN, Shaikh SA, Fahim MF. Age-related cataract and its types in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: A Hospital-based comparative study. J Pak Med Assoc. 2016;66(10):1272-6.
Johansen JS, Harris AK, Rychly DJ, and Ergul A. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2005;4(5):1-11.
Turko IV, Marcondes S, Murad F. Diabetes-associated nitration of tyrosine and inactivation of succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281(6):H2289-94.
Chang D, Zhang X, Rong S, Sha Q, Liu P, Han T, Pan H. Serum antioxidative enzymes levels and oxidative stress products in age-related cataract patients. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:1-7.
Thiagarajan R, Manikandan R. Antioxidants and cataract. Free Radic Res. 2013;47(5):337-45.
Wang W, Schaumberg DA, Park SK. Cadmium and lead exposure and risk of cataract surgery in U.S. adults. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016;219(8):850-6.
García-Layana A, Ciufo G, Toledo E, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Fitó M, et al. The Effect of a Mediterranean Diet on the Incidence of Cataract Surgery. Nutrients. 2017;9(5):E453.
Hamid S, Gul A, Hamid Q. Relationship of cytokines and AGE products in diabetic and non- diabetic patients with cataract. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2016;10(4):507-15.
Ishaq H, Ali M, Kazmi N, Naqvi BS, Shaikh D, Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in type II diabetic patients in a health facility in Karachi, Pakistan. Trop J Pharm Res. 2016;15(5):1069-76.
Miric DJ, Kisic BM, Zoric LD, Miric BM, Mirkovic M, Mitic R. Influence of cataract maturity on aqueous humor lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidant enzymes. Eye (Lond). 2014;28(1):72-7.
Jalees SS, Rosaline M. Study of malondialdehyde and estimation of blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus with cataract. Int J Clin Biochem and Res. 2017;4(3):319-23.
Dherani M, Murthy GV, Gupta SK, Young IS, Maraini G, Camparini M, et al. Blood levels of vitamin C, carotenoids and retinol are inversely associated with cataract in a North Indian population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(8):3328-35.
Pradhan AK, Shukla AK, Reddy MVR, Garg N. Assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in age related cataract in a rural population. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2004;19(1):83-7.
Varma SD, Morris SM, Bauer SA, Koppenol WH. In vitro damage to rat lens by xanthine- xanthine oxidase: Protection by ascorbate. Exp Eye Res. 1986;43:1067-76.
Gale CR, Hall NF, Phillips DI, Martyn CN. Plasma antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids and age-related cataract. Ophthalmol. 2001;108(11):1992-8.
Weikel KA, Garber C, Baburins A, Taylor A. Nutritional modulation of cataract. Nutr Rev. 2014;72(1):30-47.