DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20160532

A randomized control trial study, single blinded, the effect of gamelan and oral glucose solution intervention toward infants’ pain respond in immunization

Endang Zulaicha Susilaningsih, Indria Laksmi Gamayanti, Purwanta .

Abstract


Background: Immunization injection procedure can cause pain in infants, so that non-pharmacological techniques approach is required to overcome it. Distraction techniques are used to reduce pain in infants including oral glucose administration and the distraction of music. How oral glucose effects in reducing pain in infants when compared with the distraction of music is not known. The research objective is to analyse and compare the effect of oral glucose intervention, gamelan music, and combined of oral glucose and gamelan music to the infant's pain response in immunization.

Methods: This study is a randomized controlled trial with only posttest design. Respondents were divided into four groups: the oral glucose group, the gamelan group, the combined group of gamelan and oral glucose, and the control group. The study was conducted at the Baki public health center, Sukoharjo, Central Java, Indonesia, from July to August 2014. The total number of respondents was 135 infants aged 2-6 months who do pentavalent immunization by intramuscular injection. Assessment scores pain response was conducted by two single-blinded independent assessors. They were using instruments FLACC (face, legs, activity, cry and consolability) at four times. They were when rubbing the skin, in the injection, three minutes after injection and five minutes after injection. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney post hoc.

Results: The glucose group had a significant average rank score that is lower in pain response when compared to the control group at the time of injection (p = 0.029 <0.05), at three minutes after injection (p = 0.000 <0.05), and five minutes after injection (p = 0.000 <0.05). The gamelan group had a significant average rank score that is lower in pain response when compared to the control group at three minutes after injection (p = 0.023 <0.05), and five minutes after injection (p = 0.006 <0.05). The combined group of gamelan and glucose had a significant average rank score that is lower in pain response when compared to the control group at five minutes after injection (p = 0.043 <0.05). The glucose group had a significant average rank that is lower in pain response scores compared to the gamelan group at the time of injection (p = 0.045 <0.05). The glucose group had a significant average rank score that is lower in pain response when compared to the combined group of gamelan and glucose at three minutes after injection (p = 0.012 <0.05).

Conclusions: Intervention glucose orally 2 ml affected the ranking of the average scores of the fastest pain response in infants who conducted immunization intramuscular injection, further distraction gamelan and the combination group of gamelan and oral glucose.


Keywords


Oral glucose, Gamelan music, Decrease, Pain, Immunization

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References


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