DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20190461

Prevalence of dermatophytic infections including antifungal susceptibility pattern of dermatophytes in a tertiary care hospital

Priyam Basak, Bandana Mallick, Swetalona Pattanaik

Abstract


Background: Dermatophytosis is a commonly encountered superficial fungal infection in the tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was undertaken to study the clinicomycological profile of dermatophytosis and perform antifungal susceptibility testing for the isolated dermatophytes.

Methods: This is 2 years cross- sectional observational study including 433 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytoses. Skin, hair and nails were collected, subjected to direct microscopy by Potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Positive growth on culture media was further identified by LPCB mount, slide culture test, growth on Dermatophyte Test Medium, pigment production in corn meal agar with 1% dextrose, urease test and hair perforation test. The isolated dermatophytes were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing by agar based disc diffusion method.

Results: Out of 433 samples, fungal filaments were seen in 308 (71.1%) samples by KOH mount, 259 (59.8%) dermatophytes were isolated from culture. Males (60.5%) were more commonly affected than females (39.5%). Most common age group affected was 21-30 years. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (57.5%) was the most common isolate followed by Trichophyton rubrum (30.1%). Tinea corporis was the most common clinical presentation (52.7%) followed by Tinea unguium (14.1%). Antifungal susceptibility testing showed itraconazole as the most sensitive antifungal agent, while fluconazole was least sensitive.

Conclusions: This study provides a scope for assessment of prevalence and clinicomycological profile, which could help in estimation of the problem and hence prevent spread of dermatophytoses with adequate control measures.


Keywords


Dermatophytosis, Dermatophytes, Tinea, Trichophyton

Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO. Epidemiology and Management of skin diseases in children in developing countries, Geneva; WHO/FCH/CAH/05.12. 2005.

Poluri LV, Indugula JP, Kondapaneni SL. Clinicomycological study of dermatophytosis in South India. J Lab Physicians. 2015 Jul;7(2):84-9.

Gadadavar S, Shilpa HS, Patil CS, Vinay PS, Shettar N. Clinico-Mycological study of dermatophytoses at a tertiary care hospital in Belagavi, Karnataka, India. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2018;7(5):1872-80.

Dermatophytosis. In: Jagdish Chander, Textbook of Medical Mycology. 4th ed. Jaypee. 2017:164.

Gupta CM, Tripathi K, Tiwari S, Rathore Y, Nema S, Dhanvijay AG. Current trends of clinicomycological profile of dermatophytosis in Central India. J Dent Med Sci. 2014;13(10):23-6.

Agarwal RK, Gupta S, Mittal G, Khan F, Roy S, Agarwal A. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes by Agar Disc Based Diffusion Method. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2015;4(3):430-6.

Nweze EI, Mukherjee PK, Ghannoum MA. Agar-based disk diffusion assay for susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. J Clin Microb. 2010 Oct 1;48(10):3750-2.

Rippon JW. The changing epidemiology and emerging patterns of dermatophyte species. Curr Top Med Mycol. 1985;1:209-34.

Rippon JW. Medical mycology: the pathogenic fungi and the pathogenic Actinomycetes. 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia ,1982: 154-248.

Pakshir K, Bahaedinie L, Rezaei Z, Sodaifi M, Zomorodian K. In vitro activity of six antifungal drugs against clinically important dermatophytes. Jundishapur J Microb. 2009;2(4):158-63.

Nagaral GV, Goud GK, Sudha P. Prevalence of tinea corporis and tinea cruris in Chitradurga rural population. Indian J Clin Experimental Dermatol. 2018;4(3):221-5.

Gunasekaran P. Prevalence of dermatophytosis in patients in a tertiary care centre in and around Cuddalore district. IAIM. 2017;4(8):91-5.

Walke HR, Gaikwad AA, Palekar SS. Clinico-mycological profile of dermatophytosis in patients attending dermatology OPD in tertiary care hospital, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3(10):432-40.

Ghosh RR, Ray R, Ghosh TK, Ghosh AP. Clinicomycological profile of dermatophytoses in a tertiary care centre hospital in West Bengal- An Indian Scenario. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014;3(9):655-6.

Kucheria M, Gupta SK, Chinna DK, Gupta V, Hans D, Singh K. Clinicomycological Profile of Dermatophytic Infections at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North India. Int J Com Health and Med Res. 2016;2(2):17-22.

Roopa C, Biradar S. Incidence and Identification of Dermatophytes in a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Karnataka, India. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2015;4(9):986-90.

Dhyaneswari GP, Muley VA, Bhore AV, Clinicomycological profile of dermatophytosis in a tertiary care hospital in Western India. SAS J Med. 2015;1(4):160-5.

Mahale RP, Rao MR, Tejashree A, Deepashree R, Kulkarni M. Clinicomycological profile of dermatophytosis in a teaching hospital. Int J Pharmaceut Sci Invent. 2014 Aug; 3(8):43-6.

Lavanya V, Solabannavar SS. Clinico-mycological study of Dermatophytosis in a tertiary care centre in Bagalkot. Int J Med Health Res. 2015;1(2):63-6.

Lyngdoh CJ, Lyngdoh WV, Choudhury B, Sangma KA, Bora I, Khyriem AB. Clinico-mycological profile of dermatophytosis in Meghalaya. Int J Med Public Health|. 2013;3(4):254-6.

Bhatia VK, Sharma PC. Epidemiological studies on dermatophytosis in human patients in Himachal Pradesh, India. Springerplus. 2014 Dec 1;3(1):134.