Body composition and prevalence of overweight and obesity and its determinants among adolescents in Manipur, North-Eastern India: a cross-sectional study

Joymati Oinam, Joy Singh Akoijam, Ningthemba Yumnam, L. Suresh Roy, Tripti Khanna


Background: Childhood obesity is emerging as one of the serious public health problems. It has become one of the significant risk factors associated with a cluster of non-communicable diseases which causes an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the body fat % and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent in Manipur and to identify factors which may contribute to overweight.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 12,410 students studying in class VIII-XII in four districts of Manipur from 2007-2009.  A self-administered questionnaire method was used. BMI and Body composition were determined using the TANITA Body Composition Analyzer. Overweight/ obesity were classified by using WHO classification. Analysis done using SPSSv20 and mean (SD), percentages and Chi-square test were used. A p-value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: The overall mean fat % was 19.4±6.1 and girls have higher fat% than boys. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity were 6.4% and 1.2% respectively. Obesity prevalence was more among girls than boys (1.6% vs 1.0%). Statistically significant association was found between obesity with family history of overweight, private schooling, playing games, mode of transport to school, sleeping hours, being vegetarian and watching television.

Conclusions: Though the prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared to other parts of India is low, the increasing trend is a definite cause of concern. Therefore, there is a need for primary prevention targeted among children and adolescents regarding adoption of healthy life styles.


Adolescent, Body composition, Obesity, Overweight, Prevalence

Full Text:



World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Technical report series No 894, Geneva: WHO; 2000. Accessed at :

Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. Global prevalence and trends of overweight and obesity among preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:1257–64.

World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Fact sheet. Updated June 2016. Accessed at:

Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Rahani HA, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factors clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2010. Lancet 2012;380:2224-60.

Thakur JS. Public health approaches to Non-communicable diseases. New Delhi: Wolters Kluwer (India); 2015.

Kaneria Y, Singh P, Sharma DC. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in relation to socio-economic conditions in two different groups of school-age children of Udaipur city, Rajasthan. J Indian Acad Clin Med. 2006;7(2):133-5.

Longkumer T. Physical Growth and Nutritional Status among Ao Naga Children of Nagaland, Northeast lndia' J Anthropol. 2013;2013.

Longkumer T. Physical Growth and Nutritional Status among Ao Naga Children of Nagaland, Northeast lndia' J Anthropol. 2013;2013.

Singh MS and Devi RKN. Nutritional status among the urban meitei children and adolescents of Manipur, Northeast lndia. J Anthropol 2013;2013.

Bisai S, Barman H, Duwarah SG. Obesity Scenario in North Eastern States of India. NEIGRIHMS. 2013;5(1):32-7.

Dkhar JW, Singh MS. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among the meitei adolescent of Manipur, lndia. Anthropol.2012;14(4):347-51.

Meharda B, Sharma SK, Singhal G, Dilip KL. Overweight and obesity: a rising problem in India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2017;4:4548-52.

Sidhu S, Marwah G, Prabhjot. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among the affluent adolescent school children of Amritsar, Punjab. Coll Antropol. 2005; 29(1): 53-5.

Chhatwal J, Verma M, Riar SK. Obesity among pre-adolescent 9. and adolescents of a developing country, India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13:231-5.

Kumar S, Mahabalaraju DK, Anuroopa MS. Prevalence of obesity and its influencing factors among affluent school children of Davengree city. Indian J Community Med. 2007;32:15-7.

World health organization. Global status report on noncommunicable diseases. Geneva: WHO;2014. Accessed at:

World health organization. Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health. Childhood overweight and obesity. Accessed at :

de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ 2007;85(9):660-7.

Sung RYT, Lau P, Yu CW, Lam PKW, Nelson EAS. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance. Arch Dis Child. 2001;85:263-7.

Khot SP, Vairagad UK. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among School Children in Aurangabad City, Maharashtra, India. Int J Current Med Applied Sci. 2015;5(2):51-5.

Vaida N. Prevalence of obesity among children studying in government and private schools in district Anantnag age group (6-12 years). IOSR J Pharm. 2013;3(1):04-11.

Mahajan A, Negi PC. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban school going adolescents in Shimla city. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurolog Dis 2014;4(1):23-8.

Patel PK, Patel BK. Determinants of overweight and obesity among school children in Mehsana District, India. Res Pharm. 2013;3(2).

Kavita HS, Ashok NC. Prevalence of obesity among primary school children and its association with parental obesity and socio-economic status. Medica Innovatica. 2013;2(1):26-31.

Ramesh K. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among high school students of Thiruvananthapuram City Corporation, Kerala, India. Aust Med J. 2010; 3(10):650-61.

Tapnikar LA, Dhingra S. Prevalence of obesity and overweight among high school children in Nagpur, Maharashtra: a cross sectional study. Scholars J Applied Med Sci. 2017;5(2):638-42.

Rajkumari B, Akoijam BS, Akoijam JS, Longjam U. Assessment of body composition and body mass index of adolescent school children in Imphal-West district, Manipur. J Med Soc 2012;26:184-8.

Tyrrell VJ, Richards GE, Hofman P, Gilles GF, Robinson E, Cutfield WS. Obesity in Auckland school children: A comparison of the body mass index and percentage body fat as the diagnostic criterion. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;5:164 9.