DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20191334

A correlative study of body mass index with oxidative stress parameters (serum uric acid and serum malondialdihyde) in essential hypertension

Chanchal Shrivastav, Paras Arvindbhai Parekh, G. Indra Kumar

Abstract


Background: Hypertension is most commonly documented modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A growing body of data proposes an appreciated pathogenic role of an elevated serum uric acid in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased oxidative stress could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Oxidative stress marker, serum uric acid (SUA) and serum malondialdyhyde level (S. MDA) are affected by both genetic and environmental factors and related to biological factors as gender, age and body mass. So, the aim of the study is to access the association of body mass index (BMI) with oxidative stress parameters in essential hypertension (EHT).

Methods: For the said purpose, this case control study was carried out on a total of 200, age and sex matched 75 hypertensives, 75 prehypertensive and 50 healthy subjects. After diagnosis of cases, SUA was estimated by standard kit method and S. MDA was estimated manually by Buege and Aust method.

Results: This study represents that systolic and diastolic blood pressure were increased with increased BMI in all groups. Oxidative stress marker, SUA and S. MDA level increased significantly with increasing BMI in all groups and were positively correlated.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that monitoring of the blood pressure, SUA and S. MDA at regular interval and maintaining of the oxidative balance would be helpful in preventing the development of hypertension and associated cardio-vascular morbidities.


Keywords


Body mass index, Essential hypertension, Serum malondialdehyde, Serum uric acid

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Vander Hoorn S, Murray CJ. Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet. 2002;360(9343):1347-60.

Williams GH, Braunwald E. Hypertensive vascular disease. In: Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Prentice Hall; 1987.

Steyn K, Damasceno A. Lifestyle and related risk factors for chronic diseases. In: Jamison DT, Feachem RG, Makogoba WM, Bos RE, Baingana KF, Hofman JK, Rogo OK, editor. Disease and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington: The World Bank; 2006:247-264.

Barlow SE. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4):S164-92.

Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Kotsis V. The role of obesity, salt and exercise on blood pressure in children and adolescents. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2011;9(6):753-61.

Appropriate body-mass index for Asian population and its implication for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363(9403):157-63.

Pi-Sunyer FX. Medical hazards of obesity. Annals Internal Med. 1993;119(7):655-60.

Tandon K. Obesity, its distribution pattern and health implications among Khatri population, Ph. D. theses. Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi, India; 2006.

Gupta R, Prakash H. Assessment of dietary ghee intake with coronary heart disease and risk factor prevalence in rural male. J Indian Med Association. 1995;95:67-9.

Norman M, Kaplan. Clinical hypertension. 9th ed. USA: Lippincott and Wilkins; 2006:15-16.

Garrod A. Observations on the blood and urine of gout, rheumatism and Bright’s disease. Medical Chirurgical Transactions. 1848;31:83.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. Seventh report of the Joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206-52.

Trinder P. Quantitative determination of uric acid in human serum. J Clin Pathol. 1949;22:246-50.

Buege JA, Aust SD. The thiobarbituric acid assay methods. Enzymol. 1978;52:306.

Mungreiphy NK, Kapoor S, Sinha R. Association between BMI, blood pressure, and age: study among Tangkhul Naga tribal males of Northeast India. J Anthropology. 2011 Dec 25;2011.

Rosmarakis ES, Vergidis PI, Soteriades ES, Paraschakis K, Papastamataki PA, Falagas ME. “Estimates of global production in cardiovascular diseases research. Int J Cardiol. 2005;100(3):443-49.

Hoeger W, Hoeger S. Lifetime physical fitness and wellness: A personalized program: Cengage Learning. 2010:324.

Mancia G, Bousquet P, Elghozi JL, Esler M, Grassi G, Julius S, et al. The sympathetic nervous system and the metabolic syndrome. J Hypertens. 2007;25(5):909-20.

Lambert E, Straznicky N, Schlaich M, Esler M, Dawood T, Hotchkin E, et al. Differing pattern of sympathoexcitation in normal-weight and obesity-related hypertension. Hypertension. 2007;50(5):862-8.

Yang R, Barouch LA. Leptin signaling and obesity: cardiovascular consequences. Circ Res. 2007;101(6):545-59.

Katagiri H, Yamada T, Oka Y. Adiposity and cardiovascular disorders: disturbance of the regulatory system consisting of humoral and neuronal signals. Circ Res. 2007;101(1):27-39.

Wu H, Ghosh S, Perrard XD, Feng L, Garcia GE, Perrard JL, et al. T-cell accumulation and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted upregulation in adipose tissue in obesity. Circulation. 2007;115(8):1029-38.

Guzik TJ, Hoch NE, Brown KA, McCann LA, Rahman A, Dikalov S, et al. Role of the T cell in the genesis of angiotensin II induced hypertension and vascular dysfunction. J Exp Med. 2007;204(10):2449-60.

Grassi G, Quarti-Trevano F, Seravalle G, Arenare F, Brambilla G, Mancia G. Blood pressure lowering effects of rimonabant in obesity-related hypertension. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20(1):63-8.

Jawed S, Khawaja TF, Sultan MA, Ahmed S. The effect of essential hypertension on serum uric acid level. Biomedica. 2005;21:98-102.

Facchini F, Chen YD, Hollenbeck CB, Reaven GM. Relationship between resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake, urinary uric acid clearance, and plasma uric acid concentration. JAMA. 1991;266:3008-11.

Hayden MR and Tyagi SC. Uric acid: a new look at an old risk marker for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the urate redox shuttle. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2004;1:10.

Mazzali M, Hughes J, Kim YG, Jefferson JA, Kang DH, Gordon KL, et al. Elevated uric acid increases blood pressure in the rat by a novel crystal-independent mechanism. Hypertension. 2001;38:1101-6.

Johnson RJ, Kang DH, Feig D, Kivlighn S, Kanellis J, Watanabe S, et al. Is there a pathogenetic role for uric acid in hypertension and cardiovascular and renal disease? Hypertension. 2003;41:1183-90.

Saxena T, Agarwal BK, Sharma VK, Naz S, Lanke P. Paraoxonase activity in prehypertension and its relation to oxidative stress. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2013;6(2):389-94.

Taddei S, Ghiadoni L, Salvetti G, Virdis A, Salvetti A. Obesity and endothelial dysfunction. G Ital Cardiol. 2006;7(11):715-23.

Ahmad A, Singhal U, Hossain MM, Islam N, Rizvi I. The role of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde in essential hypertension. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(6):987-90.

Dandona P, Mohanty P, Ghanim H, Aljada A, Browne R, Hamouda W, et al. The suppressive effect of dietary restriction and weight loss in the obese on the generation of reactive oxygen species by leukocytes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:355-62.