Y-chromosomal STR variation in Kurds and Arabs population in Iraqi Kurdistan
Keywords:Genetic diversity, Kurds and Arabs population and Iraqi Kurdistan, Y-chromosome STRs
Background: The Iraqi Kurdistan local population involves more than eight gatherings of tenants. The Muslim Kurds make up most of the population and after that the Yezidi Kurds. Alternate gatherings incorporate Armenians, Assyrian, Chaldea, Syriacs, and little minority of Arab and Turkmen individuals.
Methods: A total of 36 unrelated males from the two population groups in Iraqi Kurdistan: Kurds and Arabs were analyzed for eight Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS392, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4). Total DNA from blood cells was extracted using DNA extraction Kit.
Results: A number of genetic parameters such as mean number of alleles, allele frequency, gene diversity, polymorphic information content (PIC), and genetic distance were calculated using Power Marker V3.25 software. The DYS458 had the highest diversity (GD: 0.883), while loci DYS456 and Y-GATA-H4 had the lowest (GD: 0.574). The Dendrogram separated the populations into two main clades, the Kurd group and the Arab group except in one case only from the whole population.
Conclusions: This study confirms the discriminating power of high-resolution Y-STR typing and provides first primary dataset on Iraqi Kurdistan samples. The comparison of Kurdish and Arab datasets reveals an interesting overall picture of isolation of Kurdish group. The primers DYS19, DYS448, DYS458, and DYS635 can be considered the best for their high PIC power.
Nasidze I, Quinque D, Ozturk M, Bendukidze N. Stroneking M. MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. Ann Hum. 2005;69:401-12.
Walkinshaw M, Strickland L, Hamilton H, Denning, K, Gayley T. DNA profiling in two Alaskan native populations using HLA-DQA1, PM, and D1S80 Loci. J Forensic Sci. 1996;41:47.
Carolinam N, Miriam B, Cecilia S, Yolanda C, Jianye G, Bruce B. Reconstructing the population history of Nicaragua by means of mtDNA, Y-chromosome STRs and autosomal STR markers. Am. J Phys Anthropol. 2010;143(4):591-600.
Park MJ, Lee HY, Chang U, Kang SC, Shin KJ. Y-STR analysis of degraded DNA using reduced-size amplicons. Int J Legal Med. 2007;121(2):152-7.
Parson W, Niederstätter H, Brandstätter A, Berger B. Improved specificity of Y-STR typing in DNA mixture samples. Int J Legal Med. 2003;117(2):109-14.
Butler JM, Schoske R, Vallone PM, Kline MC, Redd AJ, Hammer MF. A Novel multiplex for simultaneous amplification of 20 Y-chromosome STR markers. Forensic Sci. Int. 2002;129(1):10-24.
Cavalli-Sforza LL, Menozzi P, Piazza A. History and geography of human genes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 1994.
Comas DI, Calafell F, Bendukidze N, Fañanás L, Bertranpetit J. Georgian and Kurd mtDNA sequence analysis shows a lack of correlation between languages and female genetic lineages. Am J Phys. 2000;112:5-16.
Richards M, Macaulay V, Hickey E, Vega E, Sykes B, Guida V, Rengo C. Tracing European founder lineages in the near Eastern mtDNA Pool. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;67:1251-76.
Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Underhill PA, Evseeva I, Blue-Smith J, Jet al. The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y chromosome diversity. Proc. Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 2001;98:10244-9.
Nebel A, Filon D, Brinkmann B, Majumder PP, Faer-Man M, Oppenheim A. The Y chromosome pool of Jews as a part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East. Am Hum Gene. 2001;69:1095-112.
Sanguinetti CJ, Dias EN, Simpson AJ. Rapid silver staining and recovery of PCR products separated on polyacrylamide gels. Biotechniques. 1994 Nov;17(5):914-21.
Nei M. Genetic distance between populations. Am Nat. 1972;106:283-92.
National Institute of Standards and Technology. 100 Bureau Dr, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA; 2017.
Imad H, Cheah Q, Mohammad J, Aamera O. Genetic variation of 17 Y-chromosomal short tandems repeats (STRs) loci from unrelated individuals in Iraq. Int J Biotechnol Mol Biol Res. 2013;4(8):119-29.
Peng HB, Rajab NSA, Gin OK, Alwi Z. Y-chromosomal STR variation in Malays of Kelantan and Minang. Pertanika J Trop Agric Sci. 2008;31(1):135-40.
Park MJ, Lee HY, Yang WI, Shin KJ. Understanding the Y chromosome variation in Korea-relevance of combined haplogroup and haplotype analyses. Int J Legal Med. 2012;126(4):589-99.
Botstein D, White RL, Skolnick M, Davis RW. Construction of genetic linkage maps in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Am J Hum Genet. 1984;32:314-31.
Kinnane JF. Career development for priests and religious: a framework for research and demonstration. Center Applied Research in the Apostolate; 1970.
Pelletiere SC. The Kurds: an unstable element in the Gulf. Westview Press; 1984.
Zarei F, Rajabi-Maham H. Phylogeography, genetic diversity and demographic history of the Iranian Kurdish groups based on mtDNA sequences. J Genet. 2016;95(4):767-76.