Effect of hypertension duration on relationship between blood pressure and signs and symptoms in hypertensive patients:a cross sectional survey

Syeda Nosheen Zehra, Adnan Anwar, Shahid Kamran, Hafsa Jawaid, Syeda Maheen, Madiha Ariff


Background: Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg or more, or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or more or taking anti-hypertensive medication. The clinical presentation of high blood pressure may depend upon several factors such as age, gender, severity and duration of hypertension. There is a paucity of data exploring the role hypertension duration may play in shaping the relationship between blood pressure and signs and symptoms of hypertension. To evaluate the effect of hypertension duration on relationship between blood pressure and signs and symptoms in hypertensive patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 patients, aged 18 or above, with self-reported history of hypertension and on anti-hypertensive medication. Data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire whereas the blood pressure level was measured with the help of sphygmomanometer using stethoscope. Inferential analysis was performed by applying chi-square test whereas the significance level was set at 0.05.

Results: The study results revealed that among patients with ≥5 years duration of hypertension headache history (P=0.021), edema (P=0.034), increased urinary frequency (P=0.031), sleep apnoea (P=0.016), palpitation (P=0.005) and confusion (p=0.021) were significantly associated with systolic whereas only increased urinary frequency (P=0.009) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, among patients with <5 years duration of hypertension vision problems (P=0.03), sleep apnoea (P=0.015) and palpitation (P=0.035) were significantly associated with systolic whereas sleep apnoea (P=0.048) and palpitation (P=0.028) were significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure.

Conclusions: The study results showed that patients with higher blood pressure were more likely to have the signs and symptoms of hypertension. Also, patients with longer duration of hypertension had greater number of signs and symptoms associated with systolic hypertension.


Blood pressure, Cross-sectional survey, Hypertension duration, Hypertensive patients, Signs and symptoms

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