DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20192539

A comparative study of salivary and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase in patients with osteoporosis

Bijender Kumar Bairwa, Mamta Sagar, R. C. Gupta, Madhuri Gupta

Abstract


Background: This study was undertaken to investigate the changes in salivary and serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase in osteoporosis patients. The objective was to compare the change in serum levels with those in saliva.

Methods: The study was conducted in the department of biochemistry, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Shobha Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Subjects were selected from department of orthopedics, National Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Shobha Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. At the same time one hundred adult osteoporosis patients confirmed by DEXA were taken. Calcium and alkaline phosphatase were measured in serum and saliva of each patient. The data obtained was statistically analyzed.

Results: Serum calcium has strong positive correlation with salivary calcium (r=0.726) while serum ALP and salivary ALP had weak positive correlation (r =0.453).

Conclusions: Saliva can be used to measure calcium level instead of serum as it is non-invasive, quick and easy method.


Keywords


Calcium and alkaline phosphatase, Osteoporosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ferdous H, Afsana F, Qureshi NK, Rouf RS. Osteoporosis: A review. Birdem Med J. 2015;5(1):30-6.

Hastar E, Yilmaz HH, Orhan H. Evaluation of mental index, mandibular cortical index and panoramic mandibular index on dental panoramic radiographs in the elderly. European J Dent. 2011;5(1):60.

Handa R, Kalla AA, Maalouf G. Osteoporosis in developing countries. Best Prac Res Clinic Rheumat. 2008;22(4):693-708.

Svedbom A, Hernlund E, Ivergård M, Compston J, Cooper C, Stenmark J, et al. Osteoporosis in the European Union: a compendium of country-specific reports. Arch Osteopor. 2013;8(1-2):137.

Willson T, Nelson SD, Newbold J, Nelson RE, LaFleur J. The clinical epidemiology of male osteoporosis: a review of the recent literature. Clinic Epidemiol. 2015;7:65.

Osteoporosis Canada. Breaking barriers not bones. National report card on osteoporosis care. Toronto: Osteoporosis Canada, 2008. Available at: https://www.iofbonehealth.org/sites/default/files/PDFs/canada_national_report_card_2008.pdf.

Nederfors T. Xerostomia and hyposalivation. Adv Dent Res. 2000;14:48-56.

Friedlander AH. The physiology, medical management and oral implications of menopause. J Am Dental Assoc. 2002;133(1):73-81.

Shih MS, Cook MA, Spence CA, Palnitkar S, McElroy H, Parfitt AM. Relationship between bone formation rate and osteoblast surface on different subdivisions of the endosteal envelope in aging and osteoporosis. Bone. 1993;14(3):519-21.

Studd JW, Holland EN, Leather AT, Smith RN. The dose-response of percutaneous oestradiol implants on the skeletons of postmenopausal women. BJOG: Int J Obstetr Gynaecol. 1994;101(9):787-91.

Davis SR, Burger HG. The rationale for physiological testosterone replacement in women. Baill Clinic Endocrinol Metabol. 1998;12(3):391-405.

Singh B, Pallagatti S, Narang RS, Kaur K, Sheikh S, Manchanda A, et al. Evaluation of serum calcium and serum parathyroid levels in post‐menopausal women with and without oral dryness. Gerodontol. 2016;33(2):240-6.

Rabiei M, Masooleh IS, Leyli EK, Nikoukar LR. Salivary calcium concentration as a screening tool for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Int J Rheum Dis. 2013;16(2):198-202.

Sewon L. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on salivary calcium concentrations in menopausal women. Arch Oral Biol. 2000;45:201-6.

Wardrop RW. Oral discomfort at menopause. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1989;67:535-40.

Kavitha MS, Asano A, Taguchi A, Kurita T, Sanada M. Diagnosis of osteoporosis from dental panoramic radiographs using the support vector machine method in a computer-aided system. BMC Med Imag. 2012;12(1):1.

Rabiei M, Masooleh IS, Leyli EK, Nikoukar LR. Salivary calcium concentration as a screening tool for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Int J Rheumat Dis. 2012;15:1-5.

Perumal GCL, Mythili R, Kumar S, Suyambukesan S. Serum total alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels in chronic periodontitis patients among Tamil Nadu population. Paripex Indian J Res. 2014;3(7):1-2.

Kumar R, Sharma G. Salivary alkaline phosphatase level as diagnostic marker for periodontal disease. J. Int Oral Health. 2011;3(5):81-5.

Dhivyalakshmi M, Maheswari TNU. Expression of Salivary biomarkers-alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in oral leukoplakia. Inter J Chem Tech Res. 2014;5:3014-8.

Delmas P, Eastell R, Garnero P, Seibel M, Stepan J, Foundation CoSAotIO. The use of biochemical markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International. 2000;11(6):S2-S17.

Sachdeva A, Seth S, Khosla AH, Sachdeva S. Study of some common biochemical bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2005;20(1):131-4.

Bhattarai T, Bhattacharya K, Chaudhuri P, Sengupta P. Correlation of common biochemical markers for bone turnover, serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase in post-menopausal women. The Malaysian J Med Sci. 2014;21(1):58.

Michaylova V, Ilkova P. Photometric determination of micro amounts of calcium with arsenazo III. Analytic Chimic Acta. 1971;53(1):194-8.

Ross PD, Kress BC, Parson RE, Wasnich RD, Armour KA, Mizrahi IA. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase and calcaneus bone density predict fractures: a prospective study. Osteop Int. 2000;11(1):76-82.

Taguchi A, Sanada M, Krall E, Nakamoto T, Ohtsuka M, Suei Y, et al. Relationship between dental panoramic radiographic findings and biochemical markers of bone turnover. J Bone Mineral Res. 2003;18(9):1689-4.

Moghadam SA, Zakeri Z, Fakour SR, Moghaddam AA. Does salivary calcium and phosphate concentrations adequately reflect bone mineral density in patients with chronic periodontitis. Glob J Health Sci. 2016;8(10):56723.

Rabiei M, Masooleh IS, Leyli EK, Nikoukar LR. Salivary calcium concentration as a screening tool for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Int J Rheumatic Dis. 2013;16(2):198-202.

Reddy S, Karthikeyan R, Sherlin HJ, Anuja N, Pratibha R, Priya P, et al. Oral signs and salivary parameters as indicators of possible osteoporosis and osteopenia in postmenopausal women-A study of 45 subjects. Brazil J Oral Sci. 2008;7(24):1502-6.