DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20192887

A prospective clinico‑hematological study in 100 cases of Pancytopenia in a tertiary care teaching hospital

Dougul Regis M., Padmavathi R.

Abstract


Background: Pancytopenia is encountered regularly in haematology practice, yet there exist only few published assessments of the frequencies of various aetiologies and this exhibit substantial geographic variation. Pancytopenia is a manifestation of many life- threatening diseases with a wide range of differential diagnosis. Haematological investigation forms the bedrock in the detection and management of patients with pancytopenia.

Methods: This study is a prospective study conducted in the Institute of pathology and haematology, Madras medical college and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai during the period from August 2015 to August 2016 on 100 cases. Case selection is based on clinical features and supported by laboratory evidence. Peripheral smear was obtained and stained by Leishman stain for all cases and examined in detail. Bone marrow aspiration /biopsy was subsequently carried out under aseptic precautions.

Results: Among the 100 cases studied, age of the patients ranged from 13 to 80 years with a slight male predominance. Most of the patients presented with generalized weakness and fever. The commonest cause for pancytopenia was aplastic anaemia followed by megaloblastic anaemia. The other causes include acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, myelofibrosis, multiple myeloma, malarial parasite, miliary tuberculosis and osteopetrosis.

Conclusions: Pancytopenia can be diagnosed, and its etiological profile can be ascertained with the help of detailed clinical history, meticulous physical examination and haematological investigations. Every attempt should be done to establish the underlying cause so that treatable conditions are diagnosed without delay and prognosis is improved.


Keywords


Aplastic anaemia, Megaloblastic anaemia, Pancytopenia

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