Published: 2016-12-28

Incidence and distribution of congenital malformations clinically detected at birth: a prospective study at tertiary care hospital

Mohammad K. Gandhi, Upendra Rameshbhai Chaudhari, Nilesh Thakor


Background: Congenital malformation represents defects in morphogenesis during early fetal life. Congenital anomalies account for 8-15% of perinatal deaths and 13-16% of neonatal deaths in India. The objective was to study overall and individual incidence and distribution of clinically detectable congenital malformations in newborns delivered at a tertiary hospital.

Methods: The present study is a prospective study of all the newborns delivered at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat, India for a period of one year from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2010. Total 5518 consecutive births including both live born babies and still born babies were examined after taking verbal and written consent of their mothers for a visible structural anomalies to determine the overall incidence and distribution of congenital malformations. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software (trial version).

Results: A total of 5518 babies were born out of which 75 were twins. Out of total 5518 newborns 5316 were live births and 202 were still births and out of 5316 live births 48 babies were malformed and out of 202 still births 20 babies were malformed. Total numbers of malformed babies were 68, so total point incidence of congenital anomalies turned out to be 1.23%. Out of total 5518 babies, 35 (0.63%) were having central nervous system malformations making its incidence of 6.34/1000 live births which turned out to be highest followed by gastrointestinal system (incidence of malformed babies: 5.44/1000 births) and genitor urinary system (incidence of malformed babies :1.09/1000 births). Commonest anomalies in central nervous system were meningomyelocele followed by hydrocephalus and anencephaly.

Conclusions: From present study we conclude that incidence of congenital anomalies of CNS was highest amongst all types of congenital anomalies (meningomyelocele being the commonest). More emphasis should be given on prevention by regular antenatal care and avoidance of known teratogens and probable teratogenic agents.


Congenital anomalies, Congenital malformations, Still births, Birth defects, Prenatal diagnosis

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