Published: 2019-06-28

Demographic profile and risk factors associated with dry eye disease in North Western Rajasthan, India

Meenu Jaju, Kalpna Jain, Surbhi Kanawa


Background: The aim was to study the demographic profile and analyze risk factor associated with dry eye disease in North West Rajasthan, India.

Methods: This was a hospital-based study conducted in Department of Ophthalmology, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan. Sample size of this study was 100 patients. All participants underwent a general ophthalmic assessment including history of any previous ocular and systemic illness along with ocular examination on slit lamp and specific tests for dry eye (Schirmer's test and Tear film break up time) were performed.

Results: Dry eye were seen maximum in age group 46 to 60 years (41%), followed by 61-75 years (23%). Female’s preponderance was seen compared with male. Dry eye patients belong from rural areas were (57%) while remaining (43%) from urban areas and among these highest were farmer/labourers (32%). Several known risk factors were found in this study which include post-menopause. Climatic condition like excessive wind, high temperature and computers users had strong association with dry eye. In Systemic disease rheumatoid arthritis was commonly associated with dry eye were. Smoking contact lens use were also associated with increased risk of developing dry eye.

Conclusions: Dry eye disease are more common in older age group patients. Female’s preponderance were found in the study especially postmeopausal women. Dry eye disease are more common in patients belongs to rural areas. Risk factor associated with dry eye were Climatic condition like excessive wind, high temperature and computers users, systemic disease like rheumatoid arthritis Smoking, contact lens users.


Dry eye, Schirmer's test, Tear film break up time, Risk factors

Full Text:



The definition and classification of dry eye disease: report of the definition and classification subcommittee of the international dry eye workshop (2007). Ocul Surf. 2007;5(2):75-92.

Haas EB. The pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis SICCA. Ophthalmol. 1964;147:1-18.

Sahai A, Malik P. Dry eye: prevalence and attributable risk factors in a hospital based population. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2005;53(2):87-91.

Guillon M, Maïssa C. Tear film evaporation-effect of age and gender. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. 2010;33(4):171-5.

Gupta N, Prasad I, Jain R, D'Souza P. Estimating the prevalence of dry eye among Indian patients attending a tertiary ophthalmology clinic. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104(3):247-55.

Shresta E, Shrestha JK, Shayami G, Chaudhary M. The conjunctival impression cytology between the diagnosed cases of dry eye and normal individuals. Nepalese J Ophthalmol. 2011;3(1):39-44.

Paulsen AJ, Cruickshanks KJ, Fischer ME, Huang GH, Klein BE, Klein R, et al. Dry eye in the beaver dam offspring study: prevalence, risk factors, and health-related quality of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;157(4):799-806.

Lamberts DW, Foster CS, Perry HD. Schirmer test after topical anesthesia and the tear meniscus height in normal eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1979;97(6):1082-5.

Moss SE, Klein R, Klein BE. Prevalence of and risk factors for dry eye syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000;118(9):1264-8.

Cardona G, García C, Seres C, Vilaseca M, Gispets J. Blink rate, blink amplitude, and tear film integrity during dynamic visual display terminal tasks. Curr Eye Res. 2011;36(3):190-7.

Klein BE, Klein R. Lifestyle exposures and eye diseases in adults. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144(6):961-9.